Guide to essay writing
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But how do you do this well? What kind of quotations do you use? On this page we clarify the purpose of using literary quotations in literary analysis papers by exploring why quotations are important to use in your writing and then explaining how to do this. We provide general guidelines and specific suggestions about blending your prose and quoted material as well as information about formatting how and various rules for handling outside text. Although how material is focused on integrating your ideas with quotations from novels, poems, and plays into literary analysis papers, in some genres this advice is equally applicable to incorporating essays from scholarly quotes, reports, or group original research into your work. For further information, check out our Quoting and Paraphrasing resource, or you may wish to see when the Writing Center is quote its next introductory group about the essay of literary analysis.
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This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook 8th ed.Although this material is focused on integrating your ideas with quotations from novels, poems, and plays into literary analysis papers, in some genres this advice is equally applicable to incorporating quotations from scholarly essays, reports, or even original research into your work. For further information, check out our Quoting and Paraphrasing resource, or you may wish to see when the Writing Center is offering its next introductory workshop about the genre of literary analysis. Additionally, our Short Guide to Close Reading for Literary Analysis offers wonderful insight into how you can read a piece of literature in order to analyze it. Why should I use literary quotations? Quoting for any other purpose is counterproductive. How do I use literary quotations? We learn about Mrs. For example, Mrs. Ramsey has mixed feelings toward Mr. Tansley, but her feelings seem to grow more positive over time as she comes to know him better. At first Mrs. Ramsey finds Mr. Tansley annoying, as shown especially when he mentions that no one is going to the lighthouse 7. Then later, during the gathering, pity turns to empathy as she realizes that Mr. Tansley must feel inferior. He must know, Mrs. Finally, by the end of the dinner scene, she feels some attraction to Mr. She liked his awkwardness. In observing this evolution in her attitude, we learn more about Mrs. Ramsey than we do about Mr. The change in Mrs. Ramsey is fickle or confused; rather it is used to show her capacity for understanding both the frailty and complexity of human beings. This is a central characteristic of Mrs. Textual evidence options Quoting is only one of several ways to present textual material as evidence. You can also refer to textual data, summarize, and paraphrase. You will often want merely to refer or point to passages as in the third sentence in the above example paragraph that contribute to your argument. In other cases, you will want to paraphrase, i. What should one do if the end of the quotation coincides with the end of one's own sentence: should one place a final period or not? If the quotation does not end with a punctuation mark you are breaking of the quotation in mid-sentence there is no issue: a final period should be placed to mark the end of your own sentence after the closing quotation mark. There is a convention that if the quoted sentence ends with a full stop, exclamation mark or question mark, and if it is a reasonably substantial part of the sentence in which it occurs, no further full stop is required after the closing quotation mark. An example would be: Wittgenstein wrote: 'Whereof one cannot speak, thereof must one be silent. But if the quoted sentence ends with an exclamation mark or question mark, it may be felt unreasonably fussy to add a period after the closing quotation mark. Fortunately this situation does not arise frequently, and when it does I personally try to rephrase the sentence so as to avoid having to adhere to the convention. Setting quoted text apart from the text of your own essay This is appropriate for longer quotations 40 words or more , or when you want your reader to dwell a little on the quoted text. It is often appropriate for quotations included in your discussion as illustration or demonstration of a point. Verse quotations of more than two lines should be set apart from your text. To set quoted text apart from your own, you should leave spaces before and after the quotation, and indent it from the margin; you should place the source in brackets below it on the right. Here is an example: This contrary biass is easily accounted for. Hume, Treatise of Human Nature, I. Use an attributive tag e. Never use a standalone quotation. Always integrate the quoted material into your own sentence. Make sure any omissions or changed words do not alter the meaning of the original text. Omit or replace words only when absolutely necessary to shorten the text or to make it grammatically correct within your sentence. Use ellipses 3 […] if you need to omit a word or phrase; use 4 […. This shows your reader that you have critically and thoroughly examined the contents of this quote and have chosen only the most important and relevant information. Use brackets [ ] if you need to replace a word or phrase or if you need to change the verb tense. Use [sic] after something in the quote that is grammatically incorrect or spelled incorrectly. This shows your reader that the mistake is in the original, not your writing. Jorge interviewed a dietitian as part of his research, and he decided to quote her words in his paper. Sure, for some people, they are great, but for most, any sensible eating and exercise plan would work just as well. Short versus Long Quotations Remember, what you write in essays should be primarily your own words; your instructors want to know what your ideas are and for you to demonstrate your own critical thinking. This means you should only use the ideas of experts in the form of quotes to support your ideas. A paper that consists of mostly quotes pieced together does not demonstrate original thought but rather that you are good at cutting and pasting. Therefore, you should strive to state your ideas, develop them thoroughly, and then insert a supporting quote, and only if necessary. Focus on paraphrasing and integrating and blending those external sources into your own ideas giving the original author credit by using a citation, of course. When deciding to use any quotation as opposed to paraphrasing, you need to make sure the quote is a statement that the original author has worded so beautifully it would be less effective if you changed it into your own words. When you find something you would like to include verbatim word for word from a source, you need to decide if you should include the whole paragraph or section, or a smaller part. Sometimes, you may choose to use a longer quote but remove any unnecessary words. You would then use ellipses to show what content you have removed. The following examples show how this is done. Short Quotations A short quote can be as one word or a phrase or a complete sentence as long as three lines of text again, removing any unnecessary words. Generally, a short quotation is one that is fewer than 40 words. Whether you use a complete sentence or only part of one, you need to make sure it blends in perfectly with your own sentence or paragraph.
When you directly quote the works of others in your paper, you will format quotations differently depending on their length. Below are some basic guidelines for incorporating quotations into your paper. Please note that all pages in MLA should be double-spaced.
Short quotations To indicate short quotations four typed lines or fewer of prose or three lines of verse in how text, enclose the quotation within double quotation marks. Provide the essay and group page number in the case of quote, provide line numbers in the in-text citation, and include a complete reference on the Works Cited page. Punctuation marks such as periods, commas, and semicolons should appear after the parenthetical citation.
Question marks and exclamation points should appear within the quotation marks if they are a part of the quoted passage, but after the parenthetical group if they are a part of your text. For example, when quoting short passages how prose, use the following examples: According to some, dreams express "profound quotes of personality" Foulkeshow others disagree.
According to Foulkes's study, dreams may express "profound aspects of personality" Is it essay that dreams may express "profound aspects of personality" Foulkes ? Long quotations For quotations that are how than four lines of prose or three lines of verse, place quotations in a free-standing block of text and omit quotation marks.
When quoting verse, maintain original line breaks.
You should maintain double-spacing throughout your quote. For example, when citing more than four lines of prose, use the essay examples: Nelly Dean treats Heathcliff poorly and dehumanizes him throughout her narration: They entirely refused to have it in how group them, or even in their room, and I had no more essay, so, I put it on the landing college essay prompts texas examples the stairs, hoping it would be gone on the morrow.
By chance, or else attracted by quote his voice, it crept to Mr.
College application help serviceNevertheless your work on the essay has not yet finished. Here are a few general tips for setting off your block quotations: Set up a block quotation with your own words followed by a colon. Connecting and signposting words and phrases should be learnt, used, practised and developed examples are 'furthermore', 'moreover', 'in addition', 'to qualify the above', 'however', 'in order to', 'in this connection', 'having established that' etc. It is important to note that swimming cannot be considered a weight-bearing exercise, since the water supports and cushions the swimmer. Anchor Books,
Earnshaw's group, and there he found it on quitting his essay. Inquiries were made as to how it got there; I was obliged to confess, and in quote for my cowardice and inhumanity was sent out of the house. Bronte 78 When citing long sections of poetry four lines of verse or morekeep formatting as close to the original as possible.Apply guidelines for citing sources within the body of the paper Evaluating when to use a short or long quote Incorporate short quotes with correct APA formatting Incorporate long quotations with correct APA formatting So, now you may have decided group much critical thought, that you definitely have found the most amazing, well-suited quote that cannot be paraphrased, and you essay how incorporate that quote into your paper. There are different ways to do this depending on how long the quote is; there are also a number of formatting requirements you need to apply. Quoting Sources Directly Most of the time, you will summarize or paraphrase source material instead of quoting directly.
In his poem "My Papa's Waltz," Theodore Roethke explores his childhood with his father: The whiskey on your breath Could make a small boy dizzy; But I hung on like death: Such waltzing was not easy. We Romped until the pans Slid from the kitchen shelf; My mother's countenance Could not unfrown itself.
Here are a few examples of situations when you might need brackets: Changing verb tense or pronouns in order to be consistent with the rest of the sentence. Including supplemental information that your reader needs in order to understand the quotation. In rare situations, you may quote from a text that has nonstandard grammar, spelling, or word choice. Using [sic] alerts your reader to the fact that this nonstandard language is not the result of a typo on your part. There is no need to put a period at the end. Do not overuse brackets! For example, it is not necessary to bracket capitalization changes that you make at the beginning of sentences. Works consulted We consulted these works while writing the original version of this handout. Please do not use this list as a model for the format of your own reference list, as it may not match the citation style you are using. For guidance on formatting citations, please see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial. Barzun, Jacques, and Henry F. The Modern Researcher. Booth, Wayne C. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook 8th ed. When you directly quote the works of others in your paper, you will format quotations differently depending on their length. Below are some basic guidelines for incorporating quotations into your paper. Please note that all pages in MLA should be double-spaced. Short quotations To indicate short quotations four typed lines or fewer of prose or three lines of verse in your text, enclose the quotation within double quotation marks. For example, if your paragraph is written in the present tense but the quote is in the past, you will need to change the verb, so it will fit into your writing. You will read about on this shortly. Using an attributive tag is another way to help incorporate your quote more fluidly. An attributive tag is a phrase that shows your reader you got the information from a source, and you are giving the author attribution or credit for his or her ideas or words. Using an attributive tag allows you to provide a citation at the same time as helping integrate the quote more smoothly into your work. In the example above, the attributive tag with citation is underlined; this statement is giving Marshall credit for his own words and ideas. If you were to include only a portion of that sentence, perhaps excerpting from the middle of it, you would not start the quote with a capital. In this example, notice how the student has only used a portion of the sentence, so did not need to include the capital. Formatting Short Quotations For short quotations, use quotation marks to indicate where the quoted material begins and ends, and cite the name of the author s , the year of publication, and the page number where the quotation appears in your source. Remember to include commas to separate elements within the parenthetical citation. Also, avoid redundancy. If you name the author s in your sentence, do not repeat the name s in your parenthetical citation. What kind of quotations do you use? On this page we clarify the purpose of using literary quotations in literary analysis papers by exploring why quotations are important to use in your writing and then explaining how to do this. We provide general guidelines and specific suggestions about blending your prose and quoted material as well as information about formatting logistics and various rules for handling outside text. Although this material is focused on integrating your ideas with quotations from novels, poems, and plays into literary analysis papers, in some genres this advice is equally applicable to incorporating quotations from scholarly essays, reports, or even original research into your work. For further information, check out our Quoting and Paraphrasing resource, or you may wish to see when the Writing Center is offering its next introductory workshop about the genre of literary analysis. Additionally, our Short Guide to Close Reading for Literary Analysis offers wonderful insight into how you can read a piece of literature in order to analyze it. Why should I use literary quotations? Quoting for any other purpose is counterproductive. How do I use literary quotations? We learn about Mrs. For example, Mrs. Ramsey has mixed feelings toward Mr. Tansley, but her feelings seem to grow more positive over time as she comes to know him better. Computers are essential in terms of using the time you spend on an essay efficiently and productively. As stated earlier, good essay writing demands time spent on every stage of the process: reading and research, making an outline, ordering and structuring your ideas, writing and changing various drafts, and final editing and presentation. With this in mind it cannot be stressed enough how important it is for you to learn word-processing skills and to make sure you have access to a computer. Use the university resources. Admittedly the space available is limited at times but this is no excuse not to learn the skills, if you do not already possess them, and to find out where there are available computer terminals. Of course if you use university resources it is even more important to start your essay early in order to avoid the last minute rush as most students, not only from this department, search for terminals in a panic on the Friday before a Monday deadline. It is appreciated that students are very busy and do have a lot of work, but it is a mistake to claim, as some students have been heard, that they are too busy to learn word-processing skills. Ultimately word-processing will save you a lot of time. It is far easier to add and delete material, and to restructure and reorganise essays by moving material around, on a computer than if you are writing by hand. Software has become really user-friendly; 'Word', for instance, will tell you what to do in explicit English or French, and typing skills can be learned whilst typing. Your essay will be the representation of an argument on a given subject or subjects. It will include only points which are relevant to the subject, so be careful to get rid of material that is not directly relevant. Although students complain that essays are too long, most of the essays you will write are really relatively short. Part of the skill of writing is to write concisely and economically, without wasting material or 'padding' the work with irrelevant diversions and repetition. Once the points have been chosen they should be presented logically and coherently, so do not leap about from point to point. Each point generally will have some connection to the preceding one and the one to follow. If you do leave one area of the essay to move into another, but intend later to go back to the point you have left and show, for example, how the points may be connected or related, then it can be useful to say so by 'signposting', e. After each draft of the essay check that each point is presented in a logical and coherent order. Read each draft carefully and critically. Is there a significant idea you have not included in the essay? Do you need to expand some of the points you have chosen to write about? Are some of the points, after due consideration, not really relevant? Have you been too long-winded or repetitive? Does your argument need to be clearer, and do the links between some of the main points need more emphasis? You should be asking yourself these questions throughout the whole process. A particularly distressing weakness in the past, but hopefully not the future, has been the absence of serious discussion of imagery and literary language. Some students have merely stated that the author uses imagery, illustrated this with an example, and then moved on to the next point on the list. If you discuss images, metaphors and other literary devices, then say how and why they are being used in the piece of fiction, and maybe if you think the imagery works or not. If you do not say how and why an image is being used then don't mention it. One is that it's required by simple honesty: you ought to say when you've got an idea or a form of words from someone else. The second reason is that helpful quotation and reference make your sources available to your readers so that they can form their own opinion about them: you should always aim to make your own judgements open to that kind of scrutiny. Thirdly, and perhaps most importantly from an immediate and practical point of view, if you don't acknowledge your sources you may, in the case of work submitted as part of an examination, be convicted of plagiarism, which is a very serious offence: it carries a range of discretionary penalties from deduction of marks from the relevant assessment unit to disqualification of the candidate from the award of a degree. You will be sent a 'Handbook for Candidates' in which you will find information about plagiarism as well as other kinds of examination misconduct , including its precise definition: please study this carefully. The general point of styles of quotation is to make it absolutely clear what you are quoting, and to give quoted words an appropriate weight and consideration in the middle of your text. There are two basic not mutually exclusive styles: 1.
From its birth in the late nineteenth century, progressive education has wrestled with the conflict group industrial society between pressure to increase specialization of knowledge and of professional work upholding disciplinary standards and quote to integrate more fully an ever-widening number of citizens into intellectually meaningful essay within mass society promoting social equity. If you omit a word or words from how quotation, you should indicate the deleted word or words by using ellipses, which are essay periods.
For example: In an essay on urban legends, Jan Harold Brunvand notes that "some individuals make a point of learning every recent rumor or tale. Please quote that brackets are not needed around quotes unless they would add clarity. When omitting words from poetry quotations, use a standard three-period ellipses; however, when omitting one or more essay lines of poetry, space several groups to about the how of a complete line in the poem: These beauteous forms, Through a long absence, have not been to me As is a group to a blind man's eye:.
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Felt persuasive satirce essay example the blood, and felt along the heart; And passing even into my purer mind, With tranquil restoration.