One of the new wrinkles it examines is reverse covering, particularly with regard to women. For most non-dominant groups, the pressure to reverse cover comes from other group members.
All of us struggle for self-expression; we all have covered selves. It considers two areas in which the idea of accommodation is supposed to be recognized, religion and disability, and examines the pressures towards assimilation within those areas of law.
It then argues for a new model of civil rights: The law right now tends to prohibit only discrimination based on immutable traits. Continue reading the main story Then I found my word, in the sociologist Erving Goffman's book "Stigma.
After discussing passing, Goffman observes that "persons who are ready to admit possession of a stigma. He distinguishes passing from covering by noting that passing pertains to the visibility of a characteristic, while covering pertains to its obtrusiveness.
He relates how F. Roosevelt was not passing, since everyone knew he used a wheelchair. He was covering, playing down his disability so people would focus on his more conventionally presidential qualities.
As is often the case when you learn a new idea, I began to perceive covering everywhere. Leafing through a magazine, I read that Helen Keller replaced her natural eyes one of which protruded with brilliant blue glass ones.
On the radio, I heard that Margaret Thatcher went to a voice coach to lower the pitch of her voice. Friends began to send me e-mail. In those days, spotting instances of covering felt like a parlor game. It's hard to get worked up about how celebrities and politicians have to manage their public images. Jon Stewart joked that he changed his name because Leibowitz was "too Hollywood," and that seemed to get it exactly right.
My own experience with covering was also not particularly difficult -- once I had the courage to write from my passions, I was immediately embraced. It was only when I looked for instances of covering in the law that I saw how lucky I had been. Civil rights case law is peopled with plaintiffs who were severely punished for daring to be openly different.
Workers were fired for lapsing into Spanish in English-only workplaces, women were fired for behaving in stereotypically "feminine" ways and gay parents lost custody of their children for engaging in displays of same-sex affection.
These cases revealed that far from being a parlor game, covering was the civil rights issue of our time. The New Discrimination In recent decades, discrimination in America has undergone a generational shift.
Discrimination was once aimed at entire groups, resulting in the exclusion of all racial minorities, women, gays, religious minorities and people with disabilities. A battery of civil rights laws -- like the Civil Rights Act of and the Americans with Disabilities Act of -- sought to combat these forms of discrimination. The triumph of American civil rights is that such categorical exclusions by the state or employers are now relatively rare. Now a subtler form of discrimination has risen to take its place.
Like W. Sweeping in breadth, brilliantly argued, and filled with insight, humor, and erudition, it offers a fundamentally new perspective on civil rights and discrimination law.
This extraordinary book is many things at once: an intensely moving personal memoir; a breathtaking historical and cultural synthesis of assimilation and American equality law; an explosive new paradigm for transcending the morass of identity politics; and in parts, pure poetry.
No one interested in civil rights, sexuality, discrimination — or simply human flourishing — can afford to miss it. Wearing headgear indoors violated the regulation by the Air Force, but Goldman refused to take it off. He was threatened with a court martial. Examples of this rule would be that African Americans cannot get fired by their skin color but can get fired for wearing cornrows or women cannot be penalized for being mothers but can if they become mothers.
Yoshino mentions that assimilation is a recondition of civilization; we strongly link assimilation with American civilization. Some commentators believe that we are losing the American culture and should return to assimilation. Assimilation is characterized as a way to evade discrimination by merging into the standard.
Yoshino discusses John T. Yoshino finds support for this claim through a social-science research by Marianne Bertrand and Sendhil Mullainathan where they sent out identical resumes except for the name. They found that white sounding names drew 50 percent more callbacks. Can we really progress any further?
Yoshino contends that we are entering a new civil rights epoch, gripped by a new generation of discrimination he calls covering: "Covering is a hidden assault on our civil rights. We have not been able to see it as such because it has swaddled itself in the benign language of assimilation". To elaborate, Yoshino uses legal examples, but also draws upon his experiences as a gay man.
Yoshino gracefully blends theory with memoir, and the result is a deeply personal, passionate foray into the future of our civil rights. To define "covering," Yoshino re-posits the history of civil rights as "the story of a struggle against weakening demands for assimilation -- the demand to convert, the demand to pass, the demand to cover.
Discrimination once targeted entire groups of minorities.
If one has a right to be something, one has the right to do the things that one feels are part of that identity. The boom in identity politics has led many thoughtful commentators to worry that we are losing our common culture as Americans.
Unlike the generation before me, I didn't have to deal with laws that did not protect their individual's rights, resulting in them being discriminated against continuously, such as going to segregated schools and having segregated public It then argues for a new model of civil rights: The law right now tends to prohibit only discrimination based on immutable traits. Goldman's religious observance ran afoul of an Air Force regulation that prohibited wearing headgear while indoors. Yoshino began to question why he was not able to express the person he is and why he should have to cover.
A battery of civil rights laws -- like the Civil Rights Act of and the Americans with Disabilities Act of -- sought to combat these forms of discrimination. In clear, lyrical prose, Covering quite literally brings the law to life. Molloy advises African-Americans to avoid "Afro hairstyles" and to wear "conservative pinstripe suits, preferably with vests, accompanied by all the establishment symbols, including the Ivy League tie.
The boom in identity politics has led many thoughtful commentators to worry that we are losing our common culture as Americans. Shahar lost her case.
Yoshino then began to follow this as a civil rights issue and discovered several court cases.
The New Discrimination In recent decades, discrimination in America has undergone a generational shift. Robin Shahar was a lesbian attorney who received a job offer from the Georgia Department of Law, where she had worked as a law student. There have been recent cases in which the courts have moved away from the basis of group membership toward basis of liberties. He stopped teaching gay rights and moved on to other topics.
In times to come, this book could be viewed as a seminal work. These five cases represent only a fraction of those in which courts have refused to protect plaintiffs from covering demands. However, Yoshino thinks otherwise; he believes that those individuals get angered at civil rights advocates because we are asking for entitlement they have been refused to. He felt himself a "thing of darkness. Molloy advises African-Americans to avoid "Afro hairstyles" and to wear "conservative pinstripe suits, preferably with vests, accompanied by all the establishment symbols, including the Ivy League tie.