Type your name and then press the Enter key once. Type your professor's name, and then Enter. Type the course identification, and then Enter. Type the date. Press the Enter key once. Click on the Align Center icon on the formatting toolbar. Type the title of your paper, capitalizing the first word and all major words and proper nouns.
Note on Cross-referencing Several Items from One Anthology: If you cite more than one essay from the same edited collection, MLA indicates you may cross-reference within your works cited list in order to avoid writing out the publishing information for each separate essay. You should consider this option if you have several references from a single text. The Writing Program Administrator as Researcher. Peeples, Tim. Philip Smith. New York: Dover, Kincaid, Jamaica.
Tobias Wolff. New York: Vintage, Carter, Angela. Article in a Reference Book e. Encyclopedias, Dictionaries For entries in encyclopedias, dictionaries, and other reference works, cite the piece as you would any other work in a collection but do not include the publisher information.
Also, if the reference book is organized alphabetically, as most are, do not list the volume or the page number of the article or item. Institutio Oratoria. Cambridge: Loeb-Harvard UP, When citing more than one volume of a multivolume work, cite the total number of volumes in the work.
Also, be sure in your in-text citation to provide both the volume number and page number s. See Citing Multivolume Works on the In-Text Citations — The Basics page, which you can access by following the appropriate link at the bottom of this page.
If the volume you are using has its own title, cite the book without referring to the other volumes as if it were an independent publication. Churchill, Winston S. The Age of Revolution.
New York: Dodd, An Introduction, Preface, Foreword, or Afterword When citing an introduction, a preface, a foreword, or an afterword, write the name of the author s of the piece you are citing. Then give the name of the part being cited, which should not be italicized or enclosed in quotation marks. Farrell, Thomas B. Norms of Rhetorical Culture. By Farrell. New Haven: Yale UP, Permanence and Change: An Anatomy of Purpose. By Kenneth Burke. The Bible Give the name of the specific edition you are using, any editor s associated with it, followed by the publication information.
Remember that your in-text parenthetical citation should include the name of the specific edition of the Bible, followed by an abbreviation of the book, the chapter and verse s.
See Citing the Bible on the In-Text Citations — The Basics page, which you can access by following the appropriate link at the bottom of this page. The New Jerusalem Bible. Susan Jones. New York: Doubleday, A Government Publication Cite the author of the publication if the author is identified. Otherwise, start with the name of the national government, followed by the agency including any subdivisions or agencies that serves as the organizational author.
For congressional documents, be sure to include the number of the Congress and the session when the hearing was held or resolution passed. United States. Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. Hearing on the Geopolitics of Oil. Washington: GPO, Government Accountability Office.
A Pamphlet Cite the title and publication information for the pamphlet just as you would a book without an author. Pamphlets and promotional materials commonly feature corporate authors commissions, committees, or other groups that does not provide individual group member names. If the pamphlet you are citing has no author, cite as directed below.
If your pamphlet has an author or a corporate author, put the name of the author last name, first name format or corporate author in the place where the author name typically appears at the beginning of the entry. See also Books by a Corporate Author or Organization above. Washington: American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Sacramento, CA: California Dept. Cite the work as you would a book, but include the designation Diss. If the dissertation is published, italicize the title and include the publication date.
Purdue University, Ann Arbor: UMI, Bile, Jeffrey. If a title begins with a numeral, then alphabetize the title as if the numeral were written as a word.
Arrange the sources alphabetically by title. Example of more than one work by the same author Barker, Juliet. Weidenfeld and Nicolson, Harry N. Abrams, If the same person performed different roles for different sources, include a term describing the role after the hyphens and a comma.
Borroff, Marie. Citations This handout presumes you already know why you should cite your sources to establish your authority, to introduce persuasive evidence, to avoid plagiarism , etc. For a resource to help you determine how to cite a specific source, see the MLA Bibliography Builder. To fully cite a source requires two stages. Only use a block quote if you have a very good reason to include the whole passage.
You can usually make your point with a shorter quote. This is different from inline quotes, below. They do not find all errors and sometimes label correct material as erroneous. Do not use the margins or write a change below the line it affects.
If corrections on any page are numerous or substantial, revise your document and reprint the page. Binding a Printed Paper Pages of a printed research paper may get misplaced or lost if they are left unattached or merely folded down at a corner.
Many prefer that a paper be secured with a simple paper or binder clip, which can be easily removed and restored. Others prefer the use of staples. Electronic Submission There are at present no commonly accepted standards for the electronic submission of research papers.
If you are asked to submit your paper electronically, obtain from your teacher guidelines for formatting, mode of submission e. Designed to be printed out and used in the classroom.
From the MLA Handbook, 8th ed. Stay foolish. They should never be simply satisfied with the status quo. They should continue to push themselves despite possible obstacles and failures. To develop a well-written paraphrase, follow these simple, step-by-step instructions. Read the text carefully and make sure you fully comprehend its meaning. A writer can only develop a well-written paraphrase if the information has been fully grasped and understood.
After analyzing and completely understanding the original text, put it to the side. Do not simply substitute words in the original text with synonyms. Show off and demonstrate your ability to process the original information, connect it to the content in your paper, and write it in your own individual and unique writing style.
Include an in-text reference next to the paraphrase. All paraphrases include references, similar to direct quotes. See section 6 of this guide to learn how to properly attribute your paraphrased information. Give yourself a pat on the back! Paraphrasing is an important part of the research and writing process. An essential part of the research process involves adding direct quotes and paraphrases into projects. When it comes to paraphrases, writers are able to take a block of text and shrink the scope of it into the their papers.
Paper writers can also use paraphrases to demonstrate their ability to analyze and reiterate information in a meaningful and relevant way.
Your parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark. During the shooting of Fitzcarraldo, Herzog and Kinski were often at odds, but their explosive relationship fostered a memorable and influential film. Pegasus, American Allergy Association. Early Writings. This method involves placing relevant source information in parentheses after a quote or a paraphrase.
The ultimate goal of a research project is to have your voice and research merged together as one. You do not include works that were only consulted. Do not type a period at the end of the title. Abrams, In the above example, Dan Gutman is the author of the book that this quote is pulled from. Twittering Machine.
Multiple Citations To cite multiple sources in the same parenthetical reference, separate the citations by a semi-colon:. Cite the work as you would a book, but include the designation Diss. Begin the list on a new page. Content notes Content notes are quite similar to evaluative bibliographic notes, where the author is commenting on the content of the source and how it relates to the information in the text.
These types of footnotes and endnotes are helpful when explaining translations, adding background information, or sharing counterexamples to research. Some professors may ask for a specific font, but Times New Roman is the most commonly accepted font. Also, be sure in your in-text citation to provide both the volume number and page number s.
Spelling out abbreviations into their full words and meaning is recommended. In a block quote, which is used when a large quote, of 4 lines or more, is added into a project. Thus, when including the medium of publication for electronic sources, list the medium as Web.
Whatever font you choose, MLA recommends that the regular and italics type styles contrast enough that they are recognizable one from another. Then list the title of the course or the school catalog designation for the course in italics. Both of these can be formatted as either footnotes or endnotes.
The entire document should be double-spaced, including the header and bibliography. New York: Vintage, This information is no longer required by MLA.
Punctuation marks such as periods, commas, and semicolons should appear after the parenthetical citation. Set the line spacing to double spaced. You might have to select Personal to find your template.