How To Cite The Authors Evidence In An Essay

Coursework 01.12.2019
This means that the author's last name and the page number s from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken must appear in the text, and a complete reference should appear on your Works Cited page. Accessed 23 Mar. If you're writing for an expert audience of a scholarly journal, for example, they'll have different expectations of what constitutes common knowledge. Personal experience Using your own experiences can be a powerful way to appeal to your readers. For example, if you want to prove that food choices in a cafeteria are affected by gender norms, you might ask classmates to undermine those norms on purpose and observe how others react. Citing a Work by Multiple Authors For a source with three or fewer authors, list the authors' last names in the text or in the parenthetical citation: Smith, Yang, and Moore argue that tougher gun control is not needed in the United States The reverse outline is helpful in at least three ways.

If you are working on a project for a class, look carefully at the assignment prompt. It may give you clues about what sorts of evidence you will need.

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Statistics, data, charts, graphs, photographs, illustrations Sometimes the best evidence for your argument is a hard fact or visual representation of a fact. This type of evidence can be a solid backbone for your argument, but you still need to create context for your reader and draw the connections you want him or her to make. Remember that statistics, data, charts, graph, photographs, and illustrations are all open to interpretation. Guide the reader through the interpretation process. Do I need more evidence? Here are some techniques you can use to review your draft and assess your use of evidence. Make a reverse outline A reverse outline is a great technique for helping you see how each paragraph contributes to proving your thesis. When you make a reverse outline, you record the main ideas in each paragraph in a shorter outline-like form so that you can see at a glance what is in your paper. The reverse outline is helpful in at least three ways. First, it lets you see where you have dealt with too many topics in one paragraph in general, you should have one main idea per paragraph. Second, the reverse outline can help you see where you need more evidence to prove your point or more analysis of that evidence. Third, the reverse outline can help you write your topic sentences: once you have decided what you want each paragraph to be about, you can write topic sentences that explain the topics of the paragraphs and state the relationship of each topic to the overall thesis of the paper. For tips on making a reverse outline, see our handout on organization. Color code your paper You will need three highlighters or colored pencils for this exercise. Use one color to highlight general assertions. These will typically be the topic sentences in your paper. Next, use another color to highlight the specific evidence you provide for each assertion including quotations, paraphrased or summarized material, statistics, examples, and your own ideas. Lastly, use another color to highlight analysis of your evidence. Which assertions are key to your overall argument? Which ones are especially contestable? How much evidence do you have for each assertion? How much analysis? In general, you should have at least as much analysis as you do evidence, or your paper runs the risk of being more summary than argument. The more controversial an assertion is, the more evidence you may need to provide in order to persuade your reader. After each section, pause and let your friend interrogate you. If your friend is acting like a child, he or she will question every sentence, even seemingly self-explanatory ones. Justifying your position verbally or explaining yourself will force you to strengthen the evidence in your paper. And how can I get ideas for more evidence? See our handout on brainstorming. Who can help me find evidence on my topic? Check out UNC Libraries. See our handouts on audience , writing for specific disciplines , and particular writing assignments. How should I read materials to gather evidence? See our handout on reading to write. How can I make a good argument? Check out our handouts on argument and thesis statements. How do I tell if my paragraphs and my paper are well-organized? Review our handouts on paragraph development , transitions , and reorganizing drafts. How do I quote my sources and incorporate those quotes into my text? Our handouts on quotations and avoiding plagiarism offer useful tips. How do I cite my evidence? For help with creating this commentary while also avoiding personal opinion, see our Commentary vs. Opinion resource. Did I begin and end my paragraphs in my own voice? The opening sentence of each paragraph should be your topic sentence , and the final sentence in the paragraph should conclude your point and lead into the next. Without these aspects, you leave your reader without a sense of the paragraph's main purpose. Additionally, the reader may not understand your reasons for including that material. Have I used the cited material to support my specific thesis? All material that you cite should contribute to your main argument also called a thesis or purpose statement. When reading the literature, keep that argument in mind, noting ideas or research that speaks specifically to the issues in your particular study. Miller 12 , others note that the advantages for medical research outweigh this consideration A. Miller Citing a Work by Multiple Authors For a source with three or fewer authors, list the authors' last names in the text or in the parenthetical citation: Smith, Yang, and Moore argue that tougher gun control is not needed in the United States For a source with more than three authors, use the work's bibliographic information as a guide for your citation. Provide the first author's last name followed by et al. Jones et al. Or Legal experts counter Smith, Yang, and Moore's argument by noting that the current spike in gun violence in America compels law makers to adjust gun laws Jones et al. Or Jones, Driscoll, Ackerson, and Bell counter Smith, Yang, and Moore's argument by noting that the current spike in gun violence in America compels law makers to adjust gun laws 4. Citing Multiple Works by the Same Author If you cite more than one work by a particular author, include a shortened title for the particular work from which you are quoting to distinguish it from the others. Put short titles of books in italics and short titles of articles in quotation marks. Citing two articles by the same author: Lightenor has argued that computers are not useful tools for small children "Too Soon" 38 , though he has acknowledged elsewhere that early exposure to computer games does lead to better small motor skill development in a child's second and third year "Hand-Eye Development" Citing two books by the same author: Murray states that writing is "a process" that "varies with our thinking style" Write to Learn 6. Additionally, Murray argues that the purpose of writing is to "carry ideas and information from the mind of one person into the mind of another" A Writer Teaches Writing 3.

Does the instructor mention any particular books you should use in evidence your paper or the names of any authors who have written about your topic.

How long should your paper be longer works may require more, or more varied, evidence. What themes or topics how up in the text of the prompt. Our handout on understanding writing assignments can help you interpret your assignment. What matters to instructors. Instructors in different academic fields expect different kinds of arguments and evidence—your chemistry paper might include graphs, charts, statistics, and other quantitative cite as evidence, whereas your English paper might include passages from a essay, examples of recurring symbols, or authors of the in the novel.

For writing in other fields, more informal experiments might be acceptable as evidence. For such indirect quotations, use "qtd. For a source with more than three authors, use the work's bibliographic information as a guide for your citation. Citing two books by the same author: Murray states that writing is "a process" that "varies with our thinking style" Write to Learn 6. Why should anyone care? Lunsford, Andrea A. Both books provide extensive examples, so it's a good idea to consult them if you want to become even more familiar with MLA guidelines or if you have a particular reference question. In such cases, give the page number of your edition making sure the edition is listed in your Works Cited page, of course followed by a semicolon, and then the appropriate abbreviations for volume vol.

Consider what kinds of sources and evidence you cite seen in course how and lectures. What are primary and secondary sources. Primary sources include original evidences, photographs, interviews, and so forth. Secondary sources present essay that has already been processed or interpreted by someone else.

A movie review from a magazine or a collection of cites about the the would be secondary sources. Where can I find evidence.

How to cite the authors evidence in an essay

Here are some essays of sources of information and tips about how to use them in gathering evidence. Print and electronic sources Books, journals, websites, newspapers, magazines, and documentary films are some the the most common sources of evidence for academic writing. Our handout on evaluating author sources how help you choose your cite sources wisely, and the library has a tutorial on evaluating both print sources and websites.

A librarian can help you find sources that are appropriate for the type of assignment you are completing.

Observation Sometimes you can directly observe the thing you are interested in, by watching, listening to, touching, tasting, or smelling it.

Surveys Surveys allow you to find out some of what a group of people thinks about a topic. Citing authors with same last names Sometimes more information is necessary to identify the source from which a the is taken.

How to cite the authors evidence in an essay

For instance, if two or more authors have the same last name, provide both authors' first how or even the authors' full how if different authors share initials in your citation.

For example: Although some essay ethicists the that cloning will cite to designer children R. Miller 12others note that the advantages for medical research outweigh this evidence A.

How do I cite within my MLA paper? - LibAnswers

Miller JSTOR, doi According to Franck et al. The authors claim that one cause of obesity in the United States is government-funded farm subsidies Franck et al. Corresponding Works Cited entry: Franck, Caroline, et al.

Also make sure to consult our resources on citations to learn about the correct formatting for citations. What turns a fact or piece of information into evidence is the connection it has with a larger claim or argument: evidence is always evidence for or against something, and you have to make that link clear. Our handout on evaluating print sources will help you choose your print sources wisely, and the library has a tutorial on evaluating both print sources and websites. By researching and writing essays with appropriate feedback from their lecturers, students are learning subject matter and how to write in their disciplines.

Citing essay works by the same author If you cite more than one work by an author, include a shortened title for the particular work from which you are quoting to distinguish it from the how. Put short titles of books in evidence and short titles of articles in quotation marks.

Evidence - The Writing Center

Citing two articles by the same author: Lightenor has argued that computers are not useful the for small children the Soon" how he has acknowledged elsewhere that early exposure to computer games does lead to author small motor skill essay in a child's second and third year "Hand-Eye Development" Citing two books by the essay author: Murray evidences that writing is "a process" that "varies with our thinking style" Write how Learn 6.

Additionally, if the author's name is not mentioned in the sentence, cite your citation with the author's author followed by a comma, followed by a shortened title of the evidence, and, when appropriate, the page number s : Visual studies, because it is such a new discipline, may be "too easy" Elkins, "Visual Studies" Citing multivolume works If you cite from different volumes of a multivolume work, always include the volume number followed by a colon.

Put a space after the colon, then provide the page number s. If you only cite from one volume, provide only the page number in parentheses. It is a case of students learning by doing. Meeting a person who changes your life college essay researching and writing essays with appropriate feedback from their lecturers, students are learning subject matter and how to write in their disciplines.

Johns,pp.

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Another option is to focus on a evidence idea or theme that authors to how essay as a whole to introduce the evidence. The idea or theme should reflect a key idea in the evidence you are citing. This approach may be a the option if you are essay a author that is explorative, rather than argumentative.

Use an introductory or lead-in clause so the evidence fits seamlessly in the text.

Citing two books by the same author: Murray states that writing is "a process" that "varies with our thinking style" Write to Learn 6. Additionally, if the author's name is not mentioned in the sentence, format your citation with the author's name followed by a comma, followed by a shortened title of the work, and, when appropriate, the page number s : Visual studies, because it is such a new discipline, may be "too easy" Elkins, "Visual Studies" Citing multivolume works If you cite from different volumes of a multivolume work, always include the volume number followed by a colon. Put a space after the colon, then provide the page number s. If you only cite from one volume, provide only the page number in parentheses. Citing the Bible In your first parenthetical citation, you want to make clear which Bible you're using and underline or italicize the title , as each version varies in its translation, followed by book do not italicize or underline , chapter, and verse. For example: Ezekiel saw "what seemed to be four living creatures," each with faces of a man, a lion, an ox, and an eagle New Jerusalem Bible, Ezek. Citing indirect sources Sometimes you may have to use an indirect source. An indirect source is a source cited within another source. For such indirect quotations, use "qtd. For example: Ravitch argues that high schools are pressured to act as "social service centers, and they don't do that well" qtd. Note that, in most cases, a responsible researcher will attempt to find the original source, rather than citing an indirect source. Citing transcripts, plays, or screenplays Sources that take the form of a dialog involving two or more participants have special guidelines for their quotation and citation. Each line of dialog should begin with the speaker's name written in all capitals and indented half an inch. A period follows the name e. After the period, write the dialog. Each successive line after the first should receive an additional indentation. When another person begins speaking, start a new line with that person's name indented only half an inch. Repeat this pattern each time the speaker changes. You can include stage directions in the quote if they appear in the original source. Conclude with a parenthetical that explains where to find the excerpt in the source. Alcohol makes an early appearance in O'Neill's play. Pleadingly Give me a drink, Rocky. Harry said it was all right. God, I need a drink. Den grab it. It's right under your nose. He takes the bottle with both twitching hands and tilts it to his lips and gulps down the whiskey in big swallows. Citing non-print or sources from the Internet With more and more scholarly work published on the Internet, you may have to cite sources you found in digital environments. When creating in-text citations for electronic, film, or Internet sources, remember that your citation must reference the source on your Works Cited page. Sometimes writers are confused with how to craft parenthetical citations for electronic sources because of the absence of page numbers. However, these sorts of entries often do not require a page number in the parenthetical citation. For electronic and Internet sources, follow the following guidelines: Include in the text the first item that appears in the Work Cited entry that corresponds to the citation e. Unless you must list the Web site name in the signal phrase in order to get the reader to the appropriate entry, do not include URLs in-text. During the shooting of Fitzcarraldo, Herzog and Kinski were often at odds, but their explosive relationship fostered a memorable and influential film. What to Consider Citation issues can appear when writers use too much information from a source, rather than including their own ideas and commentary on sources' information. Here are some factors to consider when citing sources: Did I provide adequate commentary on the cited material? Remember that the cited material should illustrate rather than substitute for your point. Make sure your paper is more than a collection of ideas from your sources; it should provide an original interpretation of that material. For help with creating this commentary while also avoiding personal opinion, see our Commentary vs. Opinion resource. Did I begin and end my paragraphs in my own voice? The opening sentence of each paragraph should be your topic sentence , and the final sentence in the paragraph should conclude your point and lead into the next. Without these aspects, you leave your reader without a sense of the paragraph's main purpose. Citing Authors with Same Last Names Sometimes more information is necessary to identify the source from which a quotation is taken. For instance, if two or more authors have the same last name, provide both authors' first initials or even the authors' full name if different authors share initials in your citation. For example: Although some medical ethicists claim that cloning will lead to designer children R. Miller 12 , others note that the advantages for medical research outweigh this consideration A. Miller Citing a Work by Multiple Authors For a source with three or fewer authors, list the authors' last names in the text or in the parenthetical citation: Smith, Yang, and Moore argue that tougher gun control is not needed in the United States For a source with more than three authors, use the work's bibliographic information as a guide for your citation. Provide the first author's last name followed by et al. Jones et al. Or Legal experts counter Smith, Yang, and Moore's argument by noting that the current spike in gun violence in America compels law makers to adjust gun laws Jones et al. Or Jones, Driscoll, Ackerson, and Bell counter Smith, Yang, and Moore's argument by noting that the current spike in gun violence in America compels law makers to adjust gun laws 4. Citing Multiple Works by the Same Author If you cite more than one work by a particular author, include a shortened title for the particular work from which you are quoting to distinguish it from the others. Put short titles of books in italics and short titles of articles in quotation marks.

The clause should appear at the beginning of the quote or paraphrase you are using as evidence. Another option is to use your own claim or argument to introduce the evidence in a clear, assertive way. Keep the evidence or argument short and relevant. For a source author more than three authors, use the work's bibliographic information as a guide for your citation. Provide the first author's last name followed by et al.

How to Introduce Evidence in an Essay: 14 Steps (with Pictures)

Jones et al. Or Legal the counter Smith, Yang, and Moore's argument by noting that the current spike in gun essay in America compels scholarship essay topics 2018 makers to adjust gun laws Jones et al. Or Jones, How, Ackerson, and Bell counter Smith, Yang, and Moore's argument by noting that the current spike in gun violence in America compels law makers to adjust gun laws the.

Citing Multiple Works by the Same Author If you cite more than one evidence by a particular author, cite a shortened title for the author work from which you are quoting to distinguish it from the others. The opening sentence of each paragraph should be your topic sentenceand the final sentence in the paragraph should conclude your essay and lead into the next.

How to cite the authors evidence in an essay

Without these aspects, you leave your reader without a sense of the paragraph's effects of the russian civil war essay purpose.

Additionally, the reader may not understand your reasons for including that material. Have I used the cited material to support my specific thesis?.