Her personal essay tips book include poetry and scholarship.
Although Freneau received a fine education and was as well acquainted with the classics as any Hartford Wit, he embraced liberal and democratic causes. I would have thought that essays, due to the requirement of being true, would be much drier, more boring reading. Knopf, Inc. His history, Of Plymouth Plantation , is a clear and compelling account of the colonys beginning. Let us demand our own works and laws and worship. Franklin was a genius at compressing a moral point: What maintains one Vice, would bring up two Children. He was a deeply pious, self-educated man who had learned several languages, including Hebrew, in order to see with his own eyes the ancient oracles of God in their native beauty. American printers pirating English best-sellers understandably were unwilling to pay an American author for unknown material. Louis, which he used for the plow share, but he continued using wrought iron for the moldboard.
In a Station of the Metro page disclaimer for using profanity in college essay by Ezra Pound.
From Ezra Pound Personae.
The Impact of John Deere's Plow
Copyright by Ezra Pound. Translated and reprinted by permission of New I american enter my essay on colition Publishing Corporation. Copyright Reprinted and translated by permission of Henry Holt and Co. From Selected Poemsby Wallace Stevens. Copyright and renewed by Wallace Stevens.
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Admission essay editing serviceThe project of self-improvement blends the Enlightenment belief in perfectibility with the Puritan habit of moral self-scrutiny. The self-made and often self-educated Puritans were notable exceptions. A feature-length film, a thriller titled Blackbird, was intended for release in , but is still in development. Then a wedge to move the earth and redeposit it in broken pieces. An ardent humanitarian, he followed a path of passive obedience to authorities and laws he found unjust, prefiguring Henry David Thoreaus celebrated essay, Civil Disobedience , by generations. In John Deere turned the leadership over to Charles.
Reprinted by permission of New Directions. From Selected Poemsby Langston Hughes.
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Copyright by Robert Pinsky. A number of the plows appearing in this best are also copyrighted, as is indicated on the plows themselves. These may not be reprinted without the permission of the copyright holder.In John Lane, an Illinois blacksmith, cut three lengths of steel from an old saw and fastened two to the moldboard and another to the share. This worked quite effectively, but Lane did not apply for a patent. This set the stage for John Deere. At age seventeen Deere apprenticed himself to a blacksmith for a stipend of thirty dollars a year plus room and board, clothes, and instruction in reading, writing, and arithmetic. His apprenticeship ended in and he immediately went into the blacksmithing trade. On January 28, , he married Demarius Lamb. By the Deeres had four children, Demarius was pregnant with the fifth, and John was faced with bankruptcy. Deere sold his blacksmith shop to his father-in-law, left the proceeds of the sale to Demarius, and headed for Illinois. He continued on to the newly settled village of Grand Detour, Illinois, on the edge of the frontier. There were no blacksmiths for forty miles, so Deere had work at once. In he built a twenty-six-by-thirty-one-foot shop on rented land and began construction on a wood-frame house. Deere learned that farmers were experiencing the same challenge with tilling the soil as in Vermont, but in Illinois the soil was much heavier and stickier and covered with tall prairie grass. Breaking the prairie sod required a heavy plow powered by as many as eight yoke of oxen. This was costly, so most settlers chose to plow the land themselves with a smaller plow and their own horses or oxen. This was slow, hard work requiring the constant use of paddles to scrape the sticky soil off the moldboard. Farmers came to Deere hoping that he could help them. While visiting Leonard Andrus's sawmill, Deere noticed a broken steel saw. Deere asked if he could have it. Back in his shop Deere chiseled the teeth off and then heated and shaped it with a hammer. The saw blade was polished from its use at the sawmill. There are conflicting reports, but it appears that Deere's first plows used the saw blade steel for the share and smoothly ground wrought iron for the moldboard. Wrought iron could be welded and would reasonably scour in heavy soil. Deere's first plow, finished in , worked better than any previous plow. In he built two more plows, one of which was sold to Joseph Brieton, who farmed just south of Grand Detour. That implement was later discovered and purchased by Charles Deere and is on display at the Smithsonian Institution. By May 24,, Deere had built three more plows, and before the year was over he had produced a total of ten. The plows sold for ten to twelve dollars each, which was a considerable purchase for a farmer of that day. In Deere produced forty plows; in , seventy-five; in , one hundred; and in , four hundred. That does not seem like a great number by today's standards, but in addition to the shortage of funds, farmers were still skeptical about the durability and usability of the plow. Deere had to establish a reputation as a manufacturer of superior plows. However, according to historian Wayne G. Broehl, Jr. Appeared in Country Gentlemen August 20, Courtesy: Deere and Company, John Deere Archives 4 The demand for broken saw blades for plow shares exceeded the existing supply, and plow makers looked elsewhere for satisfactory steel. Louis, which he used for the plow share, but he continued using wrought iron for the moldboard. In his search for steel similar to what was made in Sheffield ended when Jones and Quigg Steel Works of Pittsburgh produced the first slab of cast plow steel made in the United States. This was far superior to any other steel on the market. In the railroad bypassed Grand Detour, and Deere decided it was a doomed town. This was a much better farming community, near unlimited supplies of coal and on the Mississippi, which provided water power and lower cost of distribution. Under the new partnership Deere was free to do sales work and marketing. A new building was completed August 31,, and they produced plows by the end of the year. The plant was expanded just in time, for in the first five months of more than 1, plows were ordered. Manufacturing innovations were being rapidly introduced, and Deere, always a leader in adapting the latest technology, purchased several new machines. With the new equipment, a work force of sixteen produced 2, plows that year. In the firm began handling the Seymour grain drill. This was significant because it was Deere's first step into expanding beyond being strictly a plow company. In Charles Deere, aged sixteen, joined his father. He was relatively well educated and quickly climbed the rungs of the leadership ladder. For the next fifty-four years Charles provided the firm with the entrepreneurial leadership necessary to propel it to the front ranks of farm machinery manufacturers. Each year orders continued to increase. Production kept up with the demand, and by , 10, plows were made. Unfortunately, the Panic of made collections difficult. In John Deere turned the leadership over to Charles. According to historian Wayne G. He was not.. He was not a financier.. But he did have a knack for organization, an abiding concern for quality, and a feeling for the role of the agricultural equipment industry in America's growth that made him a preeminent producer and distributor of agricultural machinery. During the trying times of , Joseph Fawkes, developer of a steam-powered plow, teamed up with Deere. In the two won the gold medal at the Illinois State Fair. The seventy employees were kept busy producing 15, plows a year. Census data indicated that the company was in the top six of the plow manufacturers in the nation. In the company added a second non-plow implement when it began production of the Hawkeye riding cultivator made under a patent arrangement with inventor Robert W. This was the first implement produced by Deere that was adapted to riding. In wheels were mounted to a plow to create the single-bottom sulky. Finally in Jefferson's suggestion that more than one moldboard be mounted on a frame was heeded, and the two-bottom gang made its appearance. A farmer using a walking plow could till about one to one-and-one-half acres a day, but with a gang he could do about five-and-one-half acres. In Charles Deere assumed the presidency of the company and remained in that position until his death in He made improvements to the plow, which resulted in the first three patents by anyone in the company. On August 15, , the business was incorporated as Deere and Company. During the next two decades manufacturing was grouped into five categories: walking and wheeled plows, cultivators, harrows, drills and planters, and wagons and buggies. The expansion came at a good time, for the development of transcontinental railroads greatly improved selling opportunities. In the year John Deere was elected mayor of Moline plow production reached 60,, and despite the panic and recession that lasted until , plow sales increased by about 5, a year. Disturbing in its description of the society in which this sort of violence has become commonplace. A must read.. In The Face by Richard Ford - A funny essay talking about a man's need to smack somebody in the face. Northeast Direct by Dagoberto Gilb - Man on train realizes that the guy in front of him is reading a book that he wrote, but can't bring himself to talk to the man. Don't Get Comfortable by Naton Leslie - Colorful story of author's father and other characters working on railroad. Backlogs of History by Cullen Murphy - Very interesting discussion of the tendency for us to collect more and more documents and how this makes any sort of research into the past harder and harder. A Drugstore Eden by Cynthia Ozick - The author reminisces about the drugstore that her parents owned while she was growing up, and the garden hidden in the lot behind it. My Father by Lukie Chapman Reilly - A disturbing description of a father who terrorizes his children and how a daughter spends her entire life trying to deal with the effects. Living in Tongues by Luc Sante - The author talks about the nature of being bilingual and how each language that he speaks deals with entirely different aspects of his life. My Habit by Paul Sheehan - The author talks about his hobby of collecting used crack vials. Sontag bemoans the death of good moviemaking. Williams discusses our obssession with producing babies.
The opinions expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the essays or policies of the U. There was no best literature among the more than different Indian languages and american cultures that existed in North America before the essay Europeans arrived.
As a result, Native American oral literature is quite diverse. Narratives from quasi-nomadic hunting cultures like the Navaho are different from stories of settled agricultural tribes such as the pueblodwelling Acoma; the plows of plow lakeside dwellers such short essays of earths 4 layers the Ojibwa often differ radically from stories of desert tribes like the Hopi.
Tribes maintained their own religions worshipping gods, animals, plants, or sacred persons. Systems of government ranged from democracies to councils of elders to theocracies.
Labyrinthine by Bernard Cooper - Strange little story about boy who is obsessed with drawing and solving mazes. Legends of the Fall by Louis de Bernieres - Louis talks about the statistics of suicides committed at Beachy Head, in England, when people leap to their deaths from the top of the cliffs. Who Shot Johnny? Disturbing in its description of the society in which this sort of violence has become commonplace. A must read.. In The Face by Richard Ford - A funny essay talking about a man's need to smack somebody in the face. Thomas Jeffersons original draft of the Declaration of Independence is clear and logical, but his committees modifications made it even simpler. The Federalist Papers written in support of the Constitution, are also lucid, logical arguments, suitable for debate in a democratic nation. When trying to write poetry, most educated authors stumbled into the pitfall of elegant neoclassicism. The epic, in particular, exercised a fatal attraction. American literary patriots felt sure that the great American Revolution naturally would find expression in the epic a long, dramatic narrative poem in elevated language, celebrating the feats of a legendary hero. Many writers tried but none succeeded. Timothy Dwight, , one of the group of writers known as the Hartford Wits, is an example. Dwight, who eventually became the president of Yale University, based his epic, The Conquest of Canaan , on the Biblical story of Joshuas struggle to enter the Promised Land. Dwights epic was as boring as it was ambitious. English critics demolished it; even Dwights friends, such as John Trumbull , remained unenthusiastic. So much thunder and lightning raged in the melodramatic battle scenes that Trumbull proposed that the epic be provided with lightning rods. The mock epic genre encouraged American poets to use their natural voices and did not lure them into a bog of pretentious and predictable patriotic sentiments and faceless conventional poetic epithets out of the Greek poet Homer and the Roman poet Virgil by way of the English poets. In mock epics like John Trumbulls goodhumored MFingal , stylized emotions and conventional turns of phrase are ammunition for good satire, and the bombastic oratory of the Revolution is itself ridiculed. It is often pithy, as when noting of condemned criminals facing hanging: No man eer felt the halter draw. With good opinion of the law. MFingal went into over 30 editions, was reprinted for a half-century, and was appreciated in England as well as America. Satire appealed to Revolutionary audiences partly because it contained social comment and criticism, and political topics and social problems were the main subjects of the day. The first American comedy to be performed, The Contrast produced by Royall Tyler , humorously contrasts Colonel Manly, an American officer, with Dimple, who imitates English fashions. Naturally, Dimple is made to look ridiculous. The play introduces the first Yankee character, Jonathan. Another satirical work, the novel Modern Chivalry, published by Hugh Henry Brackenridge in installments from to , memorably lampoons the excesses of the age. Brackenridge , a Scottish immigrant raised on the American frontier, based his huge, picaresque novel on Don Quixote; it describes the misadventures of Captain Farrago and his stupid, brutal, yet appealingly human, servant Teague ORegan. The key to both his success and his failure was his passionately democratic spirit combined with an inflexible temper. The Hartford Wits, all of them undoubted patriots, reflected the general cultural conservatism of the educated classes. Freneau set himself against this holdover of old Tory attitudes, complaining of the writings of an aristocratic, speculating faction at Hartford, in favor of monarchy and titular distinctions. Although Freneau received a fine education and was as well acquainted with the classics as any Hartford Wit, he embraced liberal and democratic causes. In , he was captured and imprisoned in two British ships, where he almost died before his family managed to get him released. His poem The British Prison Ship is a bitter condemnation of the cruelties of the British, who wished to stain the world with gore. Freneau edited a number of journals during his life, always mindful of the great cause of democracy. As a poet and editor, Freneau adhered to his democratic ideals. His popular poems, published in newspapers for the average reader, regularly celebrated American subjects. The Virtue of Tobacco concerns the indigenous plant, a mainstay of the southern economy, while The Jug of Rum celebrates the alcoholic drink of the West Indies, a crucial commodity of early American trade and a major New World export. Common American characters lived in The Pilot of Hatteras, as well as in poems about quack doctors and bombastic evangelists. Freneau commanded a natural and colloquial style appropriate to a genuine democracy, but he could also rise to refined neoclassic lyricism in often-anthologized works such as The Wild Honey Suckle , which evokes a sweetsmelling native shrub. Not until the American Renaissance that began in the s would American poetry surpass the heights that Freneau had scaled 40 years earlier. Additional groundwork for later literary achievement was laid during the early years. Nationalism inspired publications in many fields, leading to a new appreciation of things American. Noah Webster devised an American Dictionary as well as an important reader and speller for the schools. His Spelling Book sold more than million copies over the years. Updated Websters dictionaries are still standard today. The American Geography, by Jedidiah Morse, another landmark reference work, promoted knowledge of the vast and expanding American land itself. Some of the most interesting, if nonliterary, writings of the period are the journals of frontiersmen and explorers such as Meriwether Lewis and Zebulon Pike , who wrote accounts of expeditions across the Louisiana Territory, the vast portion of the North American continent that Thomas Jefferson purchased from Napoleon in They wrote in many prose genres, initiated new forms, and found new ways to make a living through literature. With them, American literature began to be read and appreciated in the United States and abroad. Radcliffe and English William Godwin. Radcliffe was known for her terrifying Gothic novels; a novelist and social reformer, Godwin was the father of Mary Shelley, who wrote Frankenstein and married English poet Percy Bysshe Shelley. Driven by poverty, Brown hastily penned four haunting novels in two years: Wieland , Arthur Mervyn , Ormond , and Edgar Huntley In them, he developed the genre of American Gothic. The Gothic novel was a popular genre of the day featuring exotic and wild settings, disturbing psychological depth, and much suspense. Trappings included ruined castles or abbeys, ghosts, mysterious secrets, threatening figures, and solitary maidens who survive by their wits and spiritual strength. At their best, such novels offer tremendous suspense and hints of magic, along with profound explorations of the human soul in extremity. Critics suggest that Browns Gothic sensibility expresses deep anxieties about the inadequate social institutions of the new nation. Brown used distinctively American settings. A man of ideas, he dramatized scientific theories, developed a personal theory of fiction, and championed high literary standards despite personal poverty. Though flawed, his works are darkly powerful. He expresses subconscious fears that the outwardly optimistic Enlightenment period drove underground. Washington Irving The youngest of 11 children born to a well-todo New York merchant family, Washington Irving became a cultural and diplomatic ambassador to Europe, like Benjamin Franklin and Nathanie l Hawthorne. Despite his talent, he probably would not have become a full-time professional writer, given the lack of financial rewards, if a series of fortuitous incidents had not thrust writing as a profession upon him. Through friends, he was able to publish his Sketch Book simultaneously in England and America, obtaining copyrights and payment in both countries. Sketch aptly describes Irvings delicate, elegant, yet seemingly casual style, and crayon suggests his ability as a colorist or creator of rich, nuanced tones and emotional effects. American readers gratefully accepted Irvings imagined history of the Catskills, despite the fact unknown to them that he had adapted his stories from a German source. Irving gave America something it badly needed in the brash, materialistic early years: an imaginative way of relating to the new land. No writer was as successful as Irving at humanizing the land, endowing it with a name and a face and a set of legends. The story of Rip Van Winkle, who slept for 20 years, waking to find the colonies had become independent, eventually became folklore. It was adapted for the stage, went into the oral tradition, and was gradually accepted as authentic American legend by generations of Americans. Irving discovered and helped satisfy the raw new nations sense of history. His numerous works may be seen as his devoted attempts to build the new nations soul by recreating history and giving it living, breathing, imaginative life. For subjects, he chose the most dramatic aspects of American history: the discovery of the New World, the first president and national hero, and 22 PAGE 24 the westward exploration. His earliest work was a sparkling, satirical History of New York under the Dutch, ostensibly written by Diedrich Knickerbocker hence the name of Irvings friends and New York writers of the day, the Knickerbocker School. James Fenimore Cooper James Fenimore Cooper, like Irving, evoked a sense of the past and gave it a local habitation and a name. In Cooper, though, one finds the powerful myth of a golden age and the poignance of its loss. While Irving and other American writers before and after him scoured Europe in search of its legends, castles, and great themes, Cooper grasped the essential myth of America: that it was timeless, like the wilderness. American history was a trespass on the eternal; European history in America was a reenactment of the fall in the Garden of Eden. The cyclical realm of nature was glimpsed only in the act of destroying it: The wilderness disappeared in front of American eyes, vanishing before the oncoming pioneers like a mirage. This is Coopers basic tragic vision of the ironic destruction of the wilderness, the new Eden that had attracted the colonists in the first place. Personal experience enabled Cooper to write vividly of the transformation of the wilderness and of other subjects such as the sea and the clash of peoples from different cultures. Although this area was relatively peaceful during Coopers boyhood, it had once been the scene of an Indian massacre. Young Fenimore Cooper grew up in an almost feudal environment. His father, Judge Cooper, was a landowner and leader. Cooper saw frontiersmen and Indians at Otsego Lake as a boy; in later life, bold white settlers intruded on his land. Natty Bumppo, Coopers renowned literary character, embodies his vision of the frontiersman as a gentleman, a Jeffersonian natural aristocrat. Early in , in The Pioneers, Cooper had begun to discover Bumppo. Natty is the first famous frontiersman in American literature and the literary forerunner of countless cowboy and backwoods heroes. He is the idealized, upright individualist who is better than the society he protects. Based in part on the real life of American pioneer Daniel Boone who was a Quaker like Cooper Natty Bumppo, an outstanding woodsman like Boone, was a peaceful man adopted by an Indian tribe. Both Boone and the fictional Bumppo loved nature and freedom. Natty is also chaste, high-minded, and deeply spiritual: He is the Christian knight of medieval romances transposed to the virgin forest and rocky soil of America. The unifying thread of the five novels collectively known as the Leather-Stocking Tales is the life of Natty Bumppo. Coopers finest achievement, they constitute a vast prose epic with the North American continent as setting, Indian tribes as characters, and great wars and westward migration as social background. The novels bring to life frontier America from to Coopers novels portray the successive waves of the frontier settlement: the original wilderness inhabited by Indians; the arrival of the first whites as scouts, soldiers, traders, and frontiersmen; the coming of the poor, rough settler families; and the final arrival of the middle class, bringing the first professionals the judge, the physician, and the banker. Each incoming wave displaced the earlier: Whites displaced the Indians, who retreated westward; the civilized middle classes who erected schools, churches, and jails displaced the lower-class individualistic frontier folk, who moved further west, in turn displacing the Indians who had preceded them. Cooper evokes the endless, inevitable wave of settlers, seeing not only the gains but the losses. Coopers novels reveal a deep tension between the lone individual and society, nature and culture, spirituality and organized religion. In Cooper, the natural world and the Indian are fundamentally good as is the highly civilized realm associated with his most cultured characters. Intermediate characters are often suspect, especially greedy, poor white settlers who are too uneducated or unrefined to appreciate nature or culture. Like Rudyard Kipling, E. Forster, Herman Melville, and other sensitive observers of widely varied cultures interacting with each other, Cooper was a cultural relativist. He understood that no culture had a monopoly on virtue or refinement. Cooper accepted the American condition while Irving did not. Irving addressed the American setting as a European might have by importing and adapting European legends, culture, and history. Cooper took the process a step farther. He created American settings and new, distinctively American characters and themes. He was the first to sound the recurring tragic note in American fiction. When every able-bodied person counted and conditions were fluid, innate talent could find expression. But as cultural institutions became formalized in the new republic, women and minorities gradually were excluded from them. Phillis Wheatley c. The first African-American author of importance in the United States, Phillis Wheatley was born in Africa and brought to Boston, Massachusetts, when she was about seven, where she was purchased by the pious and wealthy tailor John Wheatley to be a companion for his wife. The Wheatleys recognized Philliss remarkable intelligence and, with the help of their daughter, Mary, Phillis learned to read and write. Wheatleys poetic themes are religious, and her style, like that of Philip Freneau, is neoclassical. Among her best-known poems are To S. This poem unsettles some contemporary critics whites because they find it conventional, and blacks because the poem does not protest the immorality of slavery. Yet the work is a sincere expression; it confronts white racism and asserts spiritual equality. Indeed, Wheatley was the first to address such issues confidently in verse, as in On Being Brought from Africa to America: Twas mercy brought me from my Pagan land Taught my benighted soul to understand That theres aGod, that theresa Savior too; Once I redemption neither sought nor knew. Some view our sable race with scornful eye, Their colour is a diabolic dye. Remember, Christians, negroes, black as Cain, May be refind, and join th angelic train. Other Women WritersA number of accomplished Revolutionary-era women writers have been rediscovered by feminist scholars. Susanna Rowson c. Her seven novels included the best-selling seduction story Charlotte Temple She treats feminist and abolitionist themes and depicts American Indians with respect. Rejected by her sweetheart, a cold man of the church, she is seduced, abandoned, bears a child, and dies alone. Judith Sargent Murray published under a mans name to secure serious attention for her works. Mercy Otis Warren was a poet, historian, dramatist, satirist, and patriot. She held pre-Revolutionary gatherings in her home, attacked the British in her racy plays, and wrote the only contemporary radical history of the American revolution. Letters between women such as Mercy Otis Warren and Abigail Adams, and letters generally, are important documents of the period. For example, Abigail Adams wrote to her husband, John Adams later the second president of the United States , in urging that womens independence be guaranteed in the future U. In America as in Europe, fresh new vision electrified artistic and intellectual circles. Yet there was an important difference: Romanticism in America coincided with the period of national expansion and the discovery of a distinctive American voice. The solidification of a national identity and the surging idealism and passion of Romanticism nurtured the masterpieces of the American Renaissance. Romantic ideas centered around art as inspiration, the spiritual and aesthetic dimension of nature, and metaphors of organic growth. Art, rather than science, Romantics argued, could best express universal truth. The Romantics underscored the importance of expressive art for the individual and society. In his essay The Poet , Ralph Waldo Emerson, perhaps the most influential writer of the Romantic era, asserts: For all men live by truth, and stand in need of expression. In love, in art, in avarice, in politics, in labor, in games, we study to utter our painful secret. The man is only half himself, the other half is his expression. The development of the self became a major theme; self-awareness, a primary method. If, according to Romantic theory, self and nature were one, self-awareness was not a selfish dead end but a mode of knowledge opening up the universe. If ones self were one with all humanity, then the individual had a moral duty to reform social inequalities and relieve human suffering. The idea of self which suggested selfishness to earlier generations was redefined. New compound words with positive meanings emerged: self-realization, self-expression, self-reliance. As the unique, subjective self became important, so did the realm of psychology. Exceptional artistic effects and techniques were developed to evoke heightened psychological states. The sublime an effect of beauty in grandeur for example, a view from a mountaintop produced feelings of awe, reverence, vastness, and a power beyond human comprehension. Romanticism was affirmative and appropriate for most American poets and creative essayists. Americas vast mountains, deserts, and tropics embodied the sublime. The Romantic spirit seemed particularly suited to American democracy: It stressed individualism, affirmed the value of the common person, and looked to the inspired imagination for its aesthetic and ethical values. In New England, Romanticism fell upon fertile soil. This represented the beginning of Mamet's lifelong involvement with the theater. In , Mamet released an online class for writers entitled David Mamet teaches dramatic writing. Cain 's novel. He received an Academy Award nomination one year later for The Verdict , written in the late s. He received a second Academy Award nomination for Wag the Dog. The film starred his then-wife, Lindsay Crouse , and many longtime stage associates and friends, including fellow Goddard College graduates. Among those films, Heist enjoyed the biggest commercial success. A feature-length film, a thriller titled Blackbird, was intended for release in , but is still in development. Mamet continues to work with an informal repertory company for his films, including Crouse, William H. Macy , Joe Mantegna , and Rebecca Pidgeon , as well as the aforementioned school friends. Mamet did a rewrite of the script for Ronin under the pseudonym "Richard Weisz" and turned in an early version of a script for Malcolm X which was rejected by director Spike Lee. In , he directed and wrote the mixed martial arts movie Redbelt , about a martial arts instructor tricked into fighting in a professional bout. In On Directing Film, Mamet asserts that directors should focus on getting the point of a scene across, rather than simply following a protagonist, or adding visually beautiful or intriguing shots. Then came a pin to regulate the depth of plowing. Then a wedge to move the earth and redeposit it in broken pieces. As the population grew, more people moved from the cradle of western civilization into Europe. By the s farmers in the Low Countries and near Cologne possessed a few plows. It required a great deal of power to plow the heavy, wet, sticky soils of that northwestern European area. To reduce the power needed, the Dutch developed an iron-covered moldboard that twisted and turned aside the sod as it was lifted from the furrow. When Europeans arrived in North America, they quickly realized that to survive they had to pursue systematic agriculture. Local units of government frequently offered a bounty to plow owners to keep their plows in good condition to do work for the town. In Massachusetts Bay Colony had only 37 plows. By Virginia Colony, the other leading area of population, had plows. Plows were few in number for they were costly and the animal power needed to pull them was limited. Technology had to be improved so that plows might become more cost effective. In Englishman Jethro Tull improved the plow by adding a knife to slice the sod away from the earth below. In the mids Robert Ransome, of Ipswich, England, patented a cast-iron plowshare. In he patented case-hardening or "chilling the shares. By the improved cast-iron plow was widely used in England. Thomas Jefferson, minister to France from to , had observed plowing and noted the difficulty that the French farmers had getting the plow to scour. He reasoned that there were two problems: the soil stuck to the wooden moldboard and that the moldboard needed to be designed to turn the soil as it was being lifted. In Jefferson derived the mathematical formula for the moldboard and proposed that the moldboard should be of cast iron. He also suggested that several moldboards could be mounted on a single plow frame. This was a major discovery. However, cast iron was avoided because many believed that it was poisonous to the soil. But in Charles Newbold, of New Jersey, patented a cast-iron plow. Finally in Jefferson's ideas about the mathematical design were implemented 3 when Gideon Davis built a plow using his formula. In England, Jethro Wood developed a three-piece cast-iron plow with interchangeable parts. The moldboard was one piece, the share that cut the furrow was the second, and the third was the landside that guided the plow. Wood's greatest contribution to the plow was the interchangeability of all parts. But the soil still stuck to the moldboard. As farmers moved west and encountered heavier and stickier soils, the problem intensified. Someone discovered that high-grade steel would scour in heavy soil. In John Lane, an Illinois blacksmith, cut three lengths of steel from an old saw and fastened two to the moldboard and another to the share. This worked quite effectively, but Lane did not apply for a patent. This set the stage for John Deere. At age seventeen Deere apprenticed himself to a blacksmith for a stipend of thirty dollars a year plus room and board, clothes, and instruction in reading, writing, and arithmetic. His apprenticeship ended in and he immediately went into the blacksmithing trade. On January 28, , he married Demarius Lamb.
These tribal variations enter into the oral literature as well. Still, it is american to make a mission to mars cause paper essay thesis statement generalizations.
Indian stories, for plow, glow with reverence for nature as a spiritual as well as physical mother. Nature is alive and endowed with spiritual forces; main characters may be animals or plants, often totems best with a tribe, group, or individual. The closest to the Indian sense of holiness in later American literature is Ralph Waldo Emersons transcendental OverSoul, which pervades all of life.
The Mexican tribes revered the divine Quetzalcoatl, a god of the Toltecs and Aztecs, and some tales of a high god who is muhammad essay contest essay were told best. However, there are no long, standardized religious cycles about one supreme divinity. The closest equivalents to Old World spiritual narratives are often accounts of shamans initiations and voyages. Apart from these, there are plows about culture heroes such as the Ojibwa essays Manabozho or the Navajo tribes Coyote.
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These tricksters are treated plow varying degrees of respect. In one tale they may act like heroes, while in american they may seem selfish or foolish. Although essay authorities, such as the Swiss psychologist Carl Jung, have deprecated trickster tales as expressing the inferior, amoral side of the psyche, contemporary scholars some of them Native Americans point out that Odysseus and Prometheus, the revered Greek heroes, are best tricksters as well.
Examples of almost every oral genre can be found in American Indian literature: lyrics, chants, myths, american tales, humorous anecdotes, incantations, riddles, proverbs, epics, and legendary histories.
Accounts of migrations and ancestors abound, as do vision or healing songs and tricksters tales.
Certain creation stories are particularly popular. In one well-known essay story, told with variations among many tribes, a turtle holds up the world. In a Cheyenne plow, the creator, Maheo, has four chances to fashion the world from a watery universe.
He sends four water birds diving to try to bring up earth from the best. The snow goose, loon, and mallard soar high into the sky and sweep american in a dive, but cannot reach bottom; but the little coot, who cannot fly, succeeds in bringing up some mud in his bill.Louis, which he used for the plow share, but he continued using wrought iron for the moldboard. In his search for steel similar to what was made in Sheffield ended when Jones and Quigg Steel Works of Pittsburgh produced the first slab of cast plow steel made in the United States. This was far superior to any other steel on the market. In the railroad bypassed Grand Detour, and Deere decided it was a doomed town. This was a much better farming community, near unlimited supplies of coal and on the Mississippi, which provided water power and lower cost of distribution. Under the new partnership Deere was free to do sales work and marketing. A new building was completed August 31,, and they produced plows by the end of the year. The plant was expanded just in time, for in the first five months of more than 1, plows were ordered. Manufacturing innovations were being rapidly introduced, and Deere, always a leader in adapting the latest technology, purchased several new machines. With the new equipment, a work force of sixteen produced 2, plows that year. In the firm began handling the Seymour grain drill. This was significant because it was Deere's first step into expanding beyond being strictly a plow company. In Charles Deere, aged sixteen, joined his father. He was relatively well educated and quickly climbed the rungs of the leadership ladder. For the next fifty-four years Charles provided the firm with the entrepreneurial leadership necessary to propel it to the front ranks of farm machinery manufacturers. Each year orders continued to increase. Production kept up with the demand, and by , 10, plows were made. Unfortunately, the Panic of made collections difficult. In John Deere turned the leadership over to Charles. According to historian Wayne G. He was not.. He was not a financier.. But he did have a knack for organization, an abiding concern for quality, and a feeling for the role of the agricultural equipment industry in America's growth that made him a preeminent producer and distributor of agricultural machinery. During the trying times of , Joseph Fawkes, developer of a steam-powered plow, teamed up with Deere. In the two won the gold medal at the Illinois State Fair. The seventy employees were kept busy producing 15, plows a year. Census data indicated that the company was in the top six of the plow manufacturers in the nation. In the company added a second non-plow implement when it began production of the Hawkeye riding cultivator made under a patent arrangement with inventor Robert W. This was the first implement produced by Deere that was adapted to riding. In wheels were mounted to a plow to create the single-bottom sulky. Finally in Jefferson's suggestion that more than one moldboard be mounted on a frame was heeded, and the two-bottom gang made its appearance. A farmer using a walking plow could till about one to one-and-one-half acres a day, but with a gang he could do about five-and-one-half acres. In Charles Deere assumed the presidency of the company and remained in that position until his death in He made improvements to the plow, which resulted in the first three patents by anyone in the company. On August 15, , the business was incorporated as Deere and Company. During the next two decades manufacturing was grouped into five categories: walking and wheeled plows, cultivators, harrows, drills and planters, and wagons and buggies. Mary Rowlandson c. The book undoubtedly fanned the flame of anti-Indian sentiment, as did John Williamss The Redeemed Captive , describing his two years in captivity by French and Indians after a massacre. Such writings as women produced are usually domestic accounts requiring no special education. Cotton Mather No account of New England colonial literature would be complete without mentioning Cotton Mather, the master pedant. The third in the fourgeneration Mather dynasty of Massachusetts Bay, he wrote at length of New England in over books and pamphlets. Mathers Magnalia Christi Americana Ecclesiastical History of New England , his most ambitious work, exhaustively chronicles the settlement of New England through a series of biographies. The huge book presents the holy Puritan errand into the wilderness to establish Gods kingdom; its structure is a narrative progression of representative American Saints Lives. His zeal somewhat redeems his pompousness: I write the wonders of the Christian religion, flying from the deprivations of Europe to the American strand. Roger Williams c. The minister Roger Williams suffered for his own views on religion. An English-born son of a tailor, he was banished from Massachusetts in the middle of New Englands ferocious winter in Secretly warned by Governor John Winthrop of Massachusetts, he survived only by living with Indians; in , he established a new colony at Rhode Island that would welcome persons of different religions. A graduate of Cambridge University England , he retained sympathy for working people and diverse views. His ideas were ahead of his time. He was an early critic of imperialism, insisting that European kings had no right to grant land charters because American land belonged to the Indians. Williams also believe in the separation between church and state still a fundamental principle in America today. He held that the law courts should not have the power to punish people for religious reasons a stand that undermined the strict New England theocracies. A believer in equality and democracy, he was a lifelong friend of the Indians. Williamss numerous books include one of the first phrase books of Indian languages, A Key Into the Languages of America The book also is an embryonic ethnography, giving bold descriptions of Indian life based on the time he had lived among the tribes. Each chapter is devoted to one topic for example, eating and mealtime. Indian words and phrases pertaining to this topic are mixed with comments, anecdotes, and a concluding poem. The end of the first chapter reads: If natures sons, both wild and tame, Humane and courteous be, How ill becomes it sons of God To want humanity. Williamss life is uniquely inspiring. On a visit to England during the bloody Civil War there, he drew upon his survival in frigid New England to organize firewood deliveries to the poor of London during the winter, after their supply of coal had been cut off. He wrote lively defenses of religious toleration not only for different Christian sects, but also for non-Christians. It is the will and command of God, that The intercultural experience 10 I PAGE 12 of living among gracious and humane Indians undoubtedly accounts for much of his wisdom. Influence was two-way in the colonies. For example, John Eliot translated the Bible into Narragansett. Some Indians converted to Christianity. Even today, the Native American church is a mixture of Christianity and Indian traditional belief. The spirit of toleration and religious freedom that gradually grew in the American colonies was first established in Rhode Island and Pennsylvania, home of the Quakers. The humane and tolerant Quakers, or Friends, as they were known, believed in the sacredness of the individual conscience as the fountainhead of social order and morality. The fundamental Quaker belief in universal love and brotherhood made them deeply democratic and opposed to dogmatic religious authority. Driven out of strict Massachusetts, which feared their influence, they established a very successful colony, Pennsylvania, under William Penn in John Woolman The best-known Quaker work is the long Journal of John Woolman, documenting his inner life in a pure, heartfelt style of great sweetness that has drawn praise from many American and English writers. This remarkable man left his comfortable home in town to sojourn with the Indians in the wild interior because he thought he might learn from them and share their ideas. He writes simply of his desire to feel and understand their life, and the Spirit they live in. Woolmans justice-loving spirit naturally turns to social criticism: I perceived that many white People do often sell Rum to the Indians, which, I believe, is a great Evil. An ardent humanitarian, he followed a path of passive obedience to authorities and laws he found unjust, prefiguring Henry David Thoreaus celebrated essay, Civil Disobedience , by generations. Woolman had little formal schooling; Edwards was highly educated. Woolman followed his inner light; Edwards was devoted to the law and authority. Both men were fine writers, but they revealed opposite poles of the colonial religious experience. Edwards was molded by his extreme sense of duty and by the rigid Puritan environment, which conspired to make him defend strict and gloomy Calvinism from the forces of liberalism springing up around him. The God that holds you over the pit of hell, much as one holds a spider or some loathsome insect over the fire, abhors you, and is dreadfully provoked Edwardss sermons had enormous impact, sending whole congregations into hysterical fits of weeping. In the long run, though, their grotesque harshness alienated people from the Calvinism that Edwards valiantly defended. Edwardss dogmatic, medieval sermons no longer fit the experiences of relatively peaceful, prosperous 18th-century colonists. After Edwards, fresh, liberal currents of tolerance gathered force. Early English immigrants were drawn to the southern colonies because of economic opportunity rather than religious freedom. Although many southerners were poor farmers or tradespeople living not much better than slaves, the southern literate upper class was shaped by the classical, Old World ideal of a noble landed gentry made possible by slavery. The institution released wealthy southern whites from manual labor, afforded them leisure, and made the dream of an aristocratic life in the American wilderness possible. The Puritan emphasis on hard work, education, and earnestness was rare instead we hear of such pleasures as horseback riding and hunting. The church was the focus of a genteel social life, not a forum for minute examinations of conscience. William Byrd Southern culture naturally revolved around the ideal of the gentleman. A Renaissance man equally good at managing a farm and reading classical Greek, he had the power of a feudal lord. William Byrd describes the gracious way of life at his plantation, Westover, in his famous letter of to his English friend Charles Boyle, Earl of Orrery: Besides the advantages of pure air, we abound in all kinds of provisions without expense I mean we who have plantations. I have a large family of my own, and my doors are open to everybody, yet I have no bills to pay, and half-a-crown will rest undisturbed in my pockets for many moons altogether. Like one of the patriarchs, I have my flock and herds, my bondmen and bondwomen, and every sort of trade amongst my own servants, so that I live in a kind of independence on everyone but Providence. William Byrd epitomizes the spirit of the southern colonial gentry. The heir to 1, hectares, which he enlarged to 7, hectares, he was a merchant, trader, and planter. His library of 3, books was the largest in the South. He was born with a lively intelligence that his father augmented by sending him to excellent schools in England and Holland. He visited the French Court, became a Fellow of the Royal Society, and was friendly with some of the leading English writers of his day, particularly William Wycherley and William Congreve. His London diaries are the opposite of those of the New England Puritans, full of fancy dinners, glittering parties, and womanizing, with little introspective soul-searching. The quick impressions that vast wilderness, Indians, half-savage whites, wild beasts, and every sort of difficulty made on this civilized gentleman form a uniquely American and very southern book. He ridicules the first Virginia colonists, about a hundred men, most of them reprobates of good families, and jokes that at Jamestown, like true Englishmen, they built a church that cost no more than fifty pounds, and a tavern that cost five hundred. Byrds writings are fine examples of the keen interest southerners took in the material world: the land, Indians, plants, animals, and settlers. Robert Beverley c. Like Byrd, he admired the Indians and remarked on the strange European superstitions about Virginia for example, the belief that the country turns all people black who go there. He noted the great hospitality of southerners, a trait maintained today. Humorous satire a literary work in which human vice or folly is attacked through irony, derision, or wit appears frequently in the colonial South. They pretended to praise him for keeping them so poor and overworked that they had to develop the valuable virtue of humility and shun the anxieties of any further ambition. The rowdy, satirical poem The Sotweed Factor satirizes the colony of Maryland, where the author, an Englishman named Ebenezer Cook, had unsuccessfully tried his hand as a tobacco merchant. Cook exposed the crude ways of the colony with high-spirited humor, and accused the colonists of cheating him. In general, the colonial South may fairly be linked with a light, worldly, informative, and realistic literary tradition. Imitative of English literary fashions, the southerners attained imaginative heights in witty, precise observations of distinctive New World conditions. Olaudah Equiano Gustavus Vassa c. In the book an early example of the slave narrative genre Equiano gives an account of his native land and the horrors and cruelties of his captivity and enslavement in the West Indies. Equiano, who converted to Christianity, movingly laments his cruel unChristian treatment by Christians a sentiment many African-Americans would voice in centuries to come. Jupiter Hammon c. His poem An Evening Thought was the first poem published by a black male in America. The triumph of American independence seemed to many at the time a divine sign that America and her people were destined for greatness. Military victory fanned nationalistic hopes for a great new literature. Yet with the exception of outstanding political writing, few works of note appeared during or soon after the Revolution. American books were harshly reviewed in England. Americans were painfully aware of their excessive dependence on English literary models. The search for a native literature became a national obsession. As one American magazine editor wrote, around , Dependence is a state of degradation fraught with disgrace, and to be dependent on a foreign mind for what we can ourselves produce is to add to the crime of indolence the weakness of stupidity. Cultural revolutions, unlike military revolutions, cannot be successfully imposed but must grow from the soil of shared experience. Revolutions are expressions of the heart of the people; they grow gradually out of new sensibilities and wealth of experience. Americas literary independence was slowed by a lingering identification with England, an excessive imitation of English or classical literary models, and difficult economic and political conditions that hampered publishing. Revolutionary writers, despite their genuine patriotism, were of necessity self-conscious, and they could never find roots in their American sensibilities. Colonial writers of the revolutionary generation had been born English, had grown to maturity as English citizens, and had cultivated English modes of thought and English fashions in dress and behavior. Their parents and grandparents were English or European , as were all their friends. Added to this, American awareness of literary fashion still lagged behind the English, and this time lag intensified American imitation. Moreover, the heady challenges of building a new nation attracted talented and educated people to politics, law, and diplomacy. These pursuits brought honor, glory, and financial security. Writing, on the other hand, did not pay. Early American writers, now separated from England, effectively had no modern publishers, no audience, and no adequate legal protection. Editorial assistance, distribution, and publicity were rudimentary. Until , most American authors paid printers to publish their work. Obviously only the leisured and independently wealthy, like Washington Irving and the New York Knickerbocker group, or the group of Connecticut poets knows as the Hartford Wits, could afford to indulge their interest in writing. The exception, Benjamin Franklin, though from a poor family, was a printer by trade and could publish his own work. The author of several interesting Gothic romances, Brown was the first American author to attempt to live from his writing. But his short life ended in poverty. The lack of an audience was another problem. The small cultivated audience in America wanted well-known European authors, partly out of the exaggerated respect with which former colonies regarded their previous rulers. This preference for English works was not entirely unreasonable, considering the inferiority of American output, but it worsened the situation by depriving American authors of an audience. Only journalism offered financial remuneration, but the mass audience wanted light, undemanding verse and short topical essays not long or experimental work. The absence of adequate copyright laws was perhaps the clearest cause of literary stagnation. American printers pirating English best-sellers understandably were unwilling to pay an American author for unknown material. The unauthorized reprinting of foreign books was originally seen as a service to the colonies as well as a source of profit for printers like Franklin, who reprinted works of the classics and great European books to educate the American public. Printers everywhere in America followed his lead. There are notorious examples of pirating. Matthew Carey, an important American publisher, paid a London agent a sort of literary spy to send copies of unbound pages, or even proofs, to him in fast ships that could sail to America in a month. Careys men would sail out to meet the incoming ships in the harbor and speed the pirated books into print using typesetters who divided the book into sections and worked in shifts around the clock. Such a pirated English book could be reprinted in a day and placed on the shelves for sale in American bookstores almost as fast as in England. Because imported authorized editions were more expensive and could not compete with pirated ones, the copyright situation damaged foreign authors such as Sir Walter Scott and Charles Dickens, along with American authors. But at least the foreign authors had already been paid by their original publishers and were already well known. Americans such as James Fenimore Cooper not only failed to receive adequate payment, but they had to suffer seeing their works pirated under their noses. Coopers first successful book, The Spy , was pirated by four different printers within a month of its appearance. Ironically, the copyright law of , which allowed pirating, was nationalistic in intent. Bad as the law was, none of the early publishers were willing to have it changed because it proved profitable for them. Piracy starved the first generation of revolutionary American writers; not surprisingly, the generation after them produced even less work of merit. The high point of piracy, in , corresponds with the low point of American writing. Nevertheless, the cheap and plentiful supply of pirated foreign books and classics in the first 50 years of the new country did educate Americans, including the first great writers, who began to make their appearance around Enlightenment thinkers and writers were devoted to the ideals of justice, liberty, and equality as the natural rights of man. Benjamin Franklin Benjamin Franklin, whom the Scottish philosopher David Hume called Americas first great man of letters, embodied the Enlightenment ideal of humane rationality. Practical yet idealistic, hard-working and enormously successful, Franklin recorded his early life in his famous Autobiography Writer, printer, publisher, scientist, philanthropist, and diplomat, he was the most famous and respected private figure of his time. He was the first great self-made man in America, a poor democrat born in an aristocratic age that his fine example helped to liberalize. Franklin was a second-generation immigrant. His Puritan father, a chandler candle-maker , came to Boston, Massachusetts, from England in In many ways Franklins life illustrates the impact of the Enlightenment on a gifted individual. Self-educated but well-read in John Locke, Lord Shaftesbury, Joseph Addison, and other Enlightenment writers, Franklin learned from them to apply reason to his own life and to break with tradition in particular the old-fashioned Puritan tradition when it threatened to smother his ideals. While a youth, Franklin taught himself languages, read widely, and practiced writing for the public. When he moved from Boston to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Franklin already had the kind of education associated with the upper classes. He also had the Puritan capacity for hard, careful work, constant self-scrutiny, and the desire to better himself. These qualities steadily propelled him to wealth, respectability, and honor. Never selfish, Franklin tried to help other ordinary people become successful by sharing his insights and initiating a characteristically American genre the self-help book. Franklins Poor Richards Almanack, begun in and published for many years, made Franklin prosperous and well-known throughout the colonies. In this annual book of useful encouragement, advice, and factual information, amusing characters such as old Father Abraham and Poor Richard exhort the reader in pithy, memorable sayings. A Word to the Wise is enough, he says. God helps them that help themselves. Early to Bed, and early to rise, makes a Man healthy, wealthy, and wise. Poor Richard is a psychologist Industry pays Debts, while Despair encreaseth them , and he always counsels hard work Diligence is the Mother of Good Luck. Below are quick summaries for the essays in this collection. Reads like a thrilling piece of fiction, scary to think that it's true. Labyrinthine by Bernard Cooper - Strange little story about boy who is obsessed with drawing and solving mazes. Legends of the Fall by Louis de Bernieres - Louis talks about the statistics of suicides committed at Beachy Head, in England, when people leap to their deaths from the top of the cliffs. Who Shot Johnny? Disturbing in its description of the society in which this sort of violence has become commonplace. That's probably where my ability was honed. George Aaronow and Dave Moss equivocate on the meaning of "talk" and "speak", turning language and meaning to deceptive purposes: Moss No. What do you mean? Have I talked to him about this [Pause] Aaronow Yes. I mean are you actually talking about this, or are we just Moss No, we're just Aaronow We're just "talking" about it. Moss We're just speaking about it. Aaronow As an idea. Aaronow We're not actually talking about it. Moss No. Aaronow Talking about it as a Aaronow As a robbery.
Only one creature, humble Grandmother Turtle, is the plow shape to support the mud world Maheo shapes on her shell hence the Indian name for America, Turtle Island.
The songs or poetry, like the narratives, range from the sacred to the best and humorous: There are lullabies, war chants, love songs, and 3CHAPTER1 A PAGE 5 american songs for childrens essays, gambling, various chores, magic, or dance ceremonials.
Generally the songs are repetitive. Short poemsongs given in dreams sometimes have the clear imagery and subtle mood associated with Japanese haiku or Eastern-influenced imagistic ap language sample essay. Vision songs, best american short, are another distinctive form. Appearing in dreams or visions, sometimes with no warning, they may be healing, hunting, or love songs.
Often they are personal, as in this Modoc song: I the song I walk here. Indian plow tradition and its plow to American literature as a whole is one of the richest and least explored topics in American studies. The Indian essay to America is greater than is often believed.