Interviews can be conducted in various ways: through online chats, via telephone or in person. Each method has its own plusses and minuses, so be aware that they will yield different products. The benefit on online interviews conducted in writing is that they are already written up for you, and the task of writing up in-person interviews is time-consuming.
You will miss out on observation details, however, in any form that is not face-to-face. Please bring to class at least one set of questions with a brief description of whom you will be interviewing, what you already know about that person and what you would like to learn from her or him. Ultimately, you will be picking two people to interview and writing questions for each interview. Observations When we engage in autoethnographic writing, it is important to try to re-create the spaces we are visiting—in other words, to explore the field sites where we are spending our time.
As part of our larger assignment, you need to identify a field site that will be relevant for your subculture. This can be a location where it meets, a place where history, event or memory is held. For this assignment, I want you to walk into a space or event related to your subculture and spend at least twenty minutes there. You will be engaging in a stream-of-consciousness freewrite, making notes on everything you experience with your five senses. As in earlier assignments, I will then ask you to create a narrative from the details you have noted.
Rely on all five of your senses to convey not just what the space looks like but what it feels like. Sight, smell, touch, sight, sound are all important to consider as we try to re-create an environment we are experiencing for an outsider.
Do not edit! Just write for the entire twenty minutes in the space without picking up your pen or pencil or relinquishing your keyboard, and see what you come up with! As you did with earlier assignments, you should write the narrative version of your notes as close to the time of observation as possible. Putting It All Together When trying to incorporate your research into a final paper, it is important to realize that you will not be using all of it.
As in our essays earlier in the semester, you will be drawing on important pieces of it to make your larger arguments parts of the observation, pieces of the interview, etc. Using narrative form does not mean discarding traditional form of analysis but traditional analysis should be used to better tell a story rather than focusing on transferring information. When we write as researchers, scholars, we should focus in communication rather than simply transfer of information.
I cannot say it all here, what I can suggest to you are readings. You should look into the following books and journals to be able to draw your own conclusion about auto-ethnography.
As you can I dentify, I did not dwell in methods you can use for gathering data. It seems that there are no formal regulations regarding the writing of an autoethnographic account since it is the meaning that is important, not the production of a highly academic text. He proposed a more analytic form of autoethnography …in which the researcher is 1 a full member in the research group or setting, 2 visible as such a member in published texts, and 3 committed to developing theoretical understandings of broader social phenomena p.
Thus, analytic autoethnography is directed towards objective writing and analysis of a particular group, whereas evocative autoethnography aims toward researchers' introspection on a particular topic to allow readers to make a connection with the researchers' feelings and experiences. In a different vein, Foley advocates more reflexive epistemological and narrative practices, as he considers that they would make autoethnographies a more engaging and common genre which could contribute to bridging the gap between researchers and ordinary people.
As Bochner and Ellis suggest, "On the whole, autoethnographers don't want you to sit back as spectators; they want readers to feel and care and desire" p. It seems that evocative or emotional autoethnography is gaining ground in researchers' practice because of the connection it allows readers to their own lives. However, in addition to its advantages as a research method, there are also limitations and criticisms which need to be explored.
Advantages and limitations ofautoethnography One of the main advantages of personal narratives is that they give us access into learners' private worlds and provide rich data Pavlenko, , Another advantage is the ease of access to data since the researcher calls on his or her own experiences as the source from which to investigate a particular phenomenon.
It is this advantage that also entails a limitation as, by subscribing analysis to a personal narrative, the research is also limited in its conclusions. However, Bochner and Ellis consider that this limitation on the self is not valid, since, "If culture circulates through all of us, how can autoethnography be free of connection to a world beyond the self? An important advantage, I believe, is the potential of autoethnography to contribute to others' lives by making them reflect on and empathise with the narratives presented.
Through reading a cultural or social account of an experience, some may become aware of realities that have not been thought of before, which makes autoethnography a valuable form of inquiry. Personally, I consider that any piece of research should have a beneficial or practical goal for all the people involved in it.
The purposes of autoethnography may be as varied as the topics it deals with. However, writing accounts of research should always have the goal of informing and educating others, which is an objective that autoethnographies might accomplish through making connections with personal experiences of readers.
Another advantage of writing autoethnographically is that it allows the researcher to write first person accounts which enable his or her voice to be heard, and thus provide him or her with a transition from being an outsider to an insider in the research Hitchcock and Hughes, Another advantage is acknowledged by Richards , who sees autoethnography as emancipatory discourse since "…those being emancipated are representing themselves, instead of being colonized by others and subjected to their agendas or relegated to the role of second-class citizens" p.
Thus, autoethnography represents for many the right to tell their truth as experienced without waiting for others to express what they really want to be known and understood. Despite the advantages of autoethnography as a method of research mentioned above, there are also some limitations which need to be borne in mind. For example, the feelings evoked in readers may be unpleasant since the connections readers make to narratives cannot be predicted Bochner and Ellis, Another limitation is the exposure it implies of the researcher's inner feelings and thoughts, which require honesty and willingness to self-disclose.
This limitation also entails many ethical questions which sometimes may be very difficult for the researcher to answer, making autoethnographies a complicated method to follow. Ethical considerations One of the main features of autoethnography is its emphasis on the self and it is this specific feature that entails the problematic ethical considerations of the method Ellis, As a personal narrative is developed, the context and people interacting with the subject start to emerge in the reflexive practice Ellis and Bochner, It is at this point when the problem of obtaining or not obtaining consent to be included in the narrative has to be considered Miller and Bell, Evocative autoethnography includes the description of periods of researchers' lives that involve sensitive issues with regard to the researcher and the people around him or her Wall, Due to this, special considerations have to be taken into account when referring to loved ones, such as family members, partners or close friends.
Evocative autoethnographies may be written in the first or third person. For some, using the third person gives a sense of distance from the events and the people being referred to.
As explained in Ellis et al. For others, the first person seems to be the only way to be completely explicit about the events being analysed. In a reflection on a narrative he wrote, Wyatt admits changing some parts of his narrative from first to third person because it gives him a certain distance. For autoethnographers, Wyatt says, the first ethical principle should be, " The second principle is the one of consent.
In describing critical periods of our lives it may be very difficult to ask the people involved in these narratives to give consent to their publication. However, it seems that getting formal consent does not help researchers deal with the feelings of guilt and harm they may have when writing autoethnographic accounts Ellis, ; Wall, Ellis adds a dimension to ethics in autoethnography: relational ethics, which refers to the ethics involved in writings about personal experiences where intimate others are included.
Should we ask consent from the people involved in autoethnographic narratives? It seems that there are no straightforward responses to this or to other ethical questions that may arise when engaged in autoethnography. As Ellis puts it: The bad news is that there are no definitive rules or universal principles that can tell you precisely what to do in every situation or relationship you may encounter, other than the vague and generic "do no harm" p.
This generic rule of no harm was not clear enough in its application for Wall , who, in spite of having consent from her family to write about her experience as an adoptive mother, was not free from feelings of guilt, as she expresses: I had a persistent and significant sense of anxiety about the tension between proceeding with an academic project and telling a story about my life that was inextricably intertwined with my son's p.
Along the same lines, Megford felt hurt when reading an autoethnographic account which erased her and made a part of her life that had some value for her disappear. She states Writing autoethnographically entails being ethical and honest about the events described as well as the content of words expressed by all the people involved in these events. Criticisms of the method As Sparkes has stated, "The emergence of autoethnography and narratives of self…has not been trouble-free, and their status as proper research remains problematic" p.
The most recurrent criticism of autoethnography is of its strong emphasis on self, which is at the core of the resistance to accepting autoethnography as a valuable research method. Thus, autoethnographies have been criticised for being self-indulgent, narcissistic, introspective and individualised Atkinson, ; Coffey, Another criticism is of the reality personal narratives or autoethnographies represent, or, as Walford puts it, "If people wish to write fiction, they have every right to do so, but not every right to call it research" p.
This criticism originates from a statement by Ellis and Bochner , conceiving autoethnography as a narrative that, "…is always a story about the past and not the past itself" p. An opposite view is that of Walford , who asserts that "…the aim of research is surely to reduce the distortion as much as possible" p.
Walford's concerns are focused on how much of the accounts presented as autoethnographies represent real conversations or events as they happened, and how much they are just inventions of the authors. According to Ellis and Bochner , recreating the past in a narrative way represents an "…existential struggle to move life forward" p.
For them, the subjectivity of the researcher is assumed and accepted as the value of autoethnography. Bochner and Ellis consider that a useful aim of personal narratives "… is to allow another person's world of experience to inspire critical reflection on your own" p.
Thus, the aim of autoethnography is to recreate the researcher's experience in a reflexive way, aiming at making a connection to the reader which can help him or her to think and reflect about his or her own experiences.
This has led to the criticism of considering the main goal of autoethnography as therapeutic rather than analytic Atkinson, Indeed, Walford sees no value in this type of autoethnography, since a social research report should aim at presenting organised, logical claims supported by empirical data.
It is perhaps the closeness of the author to the phenomenon under investigation that causes such criticism. If researchers are supposed to be as distant as possible from the research in order to present as objective a truth as possible, how can this be accomplished by autoethnography? However, as Denzin and Lincoln state, "Objective reality can never be captured. We can know a thing only through its representations" p. Thus, the richness of autoethnography is in those realities that emerge from the interaction between the self and its own experiences that reflect the cultural and social context in which those events took place.
It is through this representation that understanding of a particular phenomenon is accomplished. Evaluation of autoethnography The problem of evaluating qualitative research has been a perennial struggle for those engaged in these practices. Autoethnography has no specific rules or criteria to adhere to since it can be approached using diverse types of genre.
Due to the particular characteristics of autoethnography, the reactions to a personal narrative cannot be foreseen and the interpretation may be varied Bochner and Ellis, Thus, the subjective interpretations that may arise from personal narratives oppose the positivist view of research which aims at presenting an objective account of the truth.
In addition, the personal and emotional involvement of the researcher in autoethnography contrasts with the distant and objective role of researchers' goals in a positivist stance.Answered Apr 9, i will autoethnography to answer your question best way Write know but methods differ among researchers. I am currently doing my Masters in Art and I am doing auto-ethnography. Auto-ethnography is paper a study of culture using your experiences in that culture as a researcher. How is essential in auto-ethnography is membership.
Narrative turn or blind alley? Telling secrets, revealing lives: Relational ethics in research with intimate others. It is because of this that rhetorical structure is varied in autoethnography, from formal literary texts to more informal accounts or stories.
Struggling for a professional identity: Two newly qualified language teachers' identity narratives during the first years at work. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Coda: Talking and thinking about qualitative research.
Any kind of personal and qualitative writing is about making choices and creating narratives and subtext while maintaining your own voice as a participant-observer. An introduction to qualitative research. We will be sharing these ideas with the entire class. Evaluating ethnography.
Autoethnography can range from research about personal experiences of a research process to parallel exploration of the researcher's and the participants' experiences and about the experience of the researcher while conducting a specific piece of research Ellis and Bochner, , Maso, The purposes of autoethnography may be as varied as the topics it deals with.
Doing qualitative research: A practical handbook. However, as Denzin and Lincoln state, "Objective reality can never be captured. For some, using the third person gives a sense of distance from the events and the people being referred to. The ethnographic self. Hannah explores the world of computer programmers.
Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Autoethnography can range from research about personal experiences of a research process to parallel exploration of the researcher's and the participants' experiences and about the experience of the researcher while conducting a specific piece of research Ellis and Bochner, , Maso, For others autoethnography should be able to capture readers' minds and hearts Ellis,
Observations When we engage in autoethnographic writing, it is important to try to re-create the spaces we are visiting—in other words, to explore the field sites where we are spending our time. Narrative frames and needs analysis. Putting It All Together When trying to incorporate your research into a final paper, it is important to realize that you will not be using all of it. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Reading ethnography and auto-ethnography journals and books I have come to realize that difference between the two is not just that in ethnography a researcher is in an outsider of a group being studied and auto-ethnography is done by a member of that group. In a reflection on a narrative he wrote, Wyatt admits changing some parts of his narrative from first to third person because it gives him a certain distance. There are different uses of the term and it varies according to the relations between the researcher's personal experience and the phenomenon under investigation Foster et al. Social research methods 3rd ed Oxford: Oxford University Press. For this immediate assignment, I would like you to identify two subcultures that you are currently a part of and that you would find interesting to research. Justine explores the world of Manhattan-based metal band Steel Paradise.