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Stem cell research topics for research paper

  • 21.06.2019
Stem cell research topics for research paper

Understanding the basis of this decline is a major goal of aging research. In particular, therapeutic approaches to ameliorate or reverse the age-associated loss of stem function could be of use in clinical geriatrics. This period has also been marked by the recent award of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for elucidation of telomeres and telomerase, a topic of critical importance to stem cell aging.

Keywords: aging, induced pluripotency, senescence, telomere There have been several recent reports in stem cell and self-renewal biology of relevance to aging. Although any summary of such a wide topic as stem cell biology necessarily omits many important advances, I will summarize a few of the more notable findings over the last 18 months.

The major findings in this area with regard to aging can be broadly grouped into two general areas: Insights into the mechanism of reprogramming and induced pluripotency iPS Insights into the aging of somatic stem cells. Regenerative medicine and iPS Induced pluripotency refers to the stable reprogramming of somatic cells into a state that is similar to that of embryonic stem ES cells.

Induced pluripotency cells have many of the properties of ES cells, including the ability to differentiate into several somatic tissues. The initial procedure for inducing reprogramming involved retroviral transduction with 3—5 genes Oct4, Sox2, Myc, Klf4, Lin28 , but this method is not ideal for human use, because it is inefficient and potentially oncogenic e.

Several recent papers have enhanced our understanding of reprogramming, showing that cell cycle inhibitors decrease the efficiency of reprogramming of human and murine somatic cells. The initial finding in this regard came out of a small candidate RNAi screen for genes whose knockdown facilitated reprogramming Zhao et al. In this work, the authors found that knockdown of p53 significantly enhanced the reprogramming of murine somatic cells.

This provocative observation was followed by a spate of papers employing a variety of approaches in human and murine systems that collectively demonstrated that activation of two archetypal tumor suppressor pathways, ARF-p53 and p16INK4a-RB, decreases reprogramming of somatic cells Hong et al. Both proteins decrease cell cycle traversal by inhibiting cyclin-dependent kinase activity, the latter by activating p53 and its downstream effector, p21CIP. Inactivation of these anti-proliferative mechanisms through a variety of means enhanced reprogramming efficiency.

Loss of p53 increased the efficiency of reprogramming and obviated the need for Klf4 and Myc, permitting reprogramming with Oct4 and Sox2 only, and suggesting that part of the function of Myc and KLF4 in reprogramming may be to increase cell cycle traversal. Of particular importance to gerontology, reprogramming efficiency was decreased using skin fibroblasts from old compared to young mice. Similarly, telomere dysfunction and other forms of DNA damage, which may be more prevalent in cells from elderly individuals, were also shown to decrease the efficiency of reprogramming in a pdependent manner Marion et al.

Subsequent work from the Jaenisch laboratory further refined these observations, demonstrating that iPS reprogramming requires the acquisition of stochastic epigenetic events, some of which are independent and others dependent on cell cycle traversal Hanna et al.

Therefore, events such as loss of p53 may enhance reprogramming by increasing proliferation, whereas expression of genes like Nanog appears to enhance reprogramming independently of an effect on the cell cycle. Intrinsic changes are those localized within the stem cell and its progeny, e. Why are honey bee colonies weakening and what can be done about it? What are the best solutions for weeds you can add a specific crop? Is the world too dependent on just a few crops? What is the best planting strategy for small rice farms?

Are smaller farms more ecologically sound than larger farms? What is organic farming? How can it be done most successfully? How can high tech be used to better enhance agriculture? How can agricultural scientists best prepare for natural disasters? Or help best in natural disaster recovery? How much does enhancing photosynthesis improve crop yield? Why is the diversity of the crop sorghum been decreasing, and what should be done about this?

How can the food distribution system be improved to prevent food waste? How can harmful algal blooms be prevented? How can antibiotic use in agriculture be reduced? Is specialization a better strategy for farmers?

What are the best strategies for farming in areas of water scarcity? Why doesn't rising global food production feed people who are hungry? How can family farmers and small-scale farms be helped to raise better crops? Are native crops better? How can farmers be encouraged to use them? How can food crops be best made more nutritious? How can poultry farmers best prevent diseases like bird flu?

How can poultry farming optimize the welfare of animals? How can poultry beef or pork farmers find solutions to reduce environmental footprints? How can poultry beef or pork farmers find the best solutions to increase or sustain their production levels?

What are those solutions and how can farmers be encouraged to follow those best practices? Healthcare Is health care ready for the routine screening of patient DNA?

Bill Jones None as cool as this article! They all have a excessive price and scary side effects or are not working at all. The acknowledgement of this aspect of the debate is acknowledged on both sides, and is a point of commonality between them.

Scientists and researchers can only have opinions about this topic -- and cannot state with any degree of certainty what the actual answer for the inception of human life truly is. Yet what truly decides the debate is the location of embryos. When the stem cell divides it will keep producing till the part of the body is back to normal Bethesda. From previous encounters with the topic I have learned that the many benefits that can come from stem cell research are without a doubt astounding and unimaginable.

There are simply endless possibilities that can arise if the research was allowed to be conducted. From giving back vision to rebuilding tissue, any advance in stem cell research would be beneficial to the medical world. The moral standings of embryonic stem cell research have been debated since the research started.

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What is the role DNA polymerases plan in maintaining the integrity of genetic information? Bone marrow hypoplasia and pulmonary fibrosis do increase in frequency with normal aging, but symptomatic disease from either condition is relatively rare. What is Green building? Progress toward the clinical application of patient-specific pluripotent stem cells.

Regenerative medicine and iPS

Keywords: aging, induced pluripotency, senescence, telomere There have been several recent reports in stem cell and self-renewal biology of relevance to aging. Even were these issues all resolved in short order, the potential toxicity e. Embryonic stem cells ESCs are derived from a week old human embryo blastocyst , often developed from unused in vitro fertilised eggs. How can it best be treated?
Stem cell research topics for research paper
Aging cell. How important is climate change legislation? Strong assertions as to the absence or presence of tissue-specific stem cells have been made in many tissues, often based on incomplete experimental data. How can nanotechnology improve diagnostic testing in patients? It is really helpful to have your pre-selected studies in my attempt to stay current in this field. Deficiencies in DNA damage repair limit the function of haematopoietic stem cells with age.

How to Start Your Science Research Paper

Is it possible to predict the next pandemic? From giving back vision to rebuilding tissue, any advance in stem cell research would be beneficial to the medical world. Cell Stem Cell. Why do animals hibernate? Are nanofibers the answer to repairing spinal cord and brain injuries? Summary In many tissues, mammalian aging is associated with a decline in the replicative and functional capacity of somatic stem cells and other self-renewing compartments.
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View Full Essay Words: Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper : There are some embryos who are outside of this environment, and will not grow to be people, and are therefore suitable to use in stem cell research. Can nanomedicine potentially extend the human lifespan? What is the effect of nanotechnology on research and development of medical technologies?

The Debate Of Embryonic Stem Cell Research

Intrinsic changes are those localized within the stem cell and its progeny, e. Institute of Nanotechnology includes articles on the most recent developments as well as links to information on nanotechnology and reports of commercial viability. Bill Jones None as cool as this article! Why do birds have such beautifully colored feathers? How can poultry farmers best prevent diseases like bird flu?
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Therefore, events such as loss of p53 may enhance reprogramming by increasing proliferation, whereas expression of genes like Nanog appears to enhance reprogramming independently of an effect on the cell cycle. The major findings in this area with regard to aging can be broadly grouped into two general areas: Insights into the mechanism of reprogramming and induced pluripotency iPS Insights into the aging of somatic stem cells. Other somatic stem and progenitor cell aging One of the oldest and mot contentious problems in somatic stem cell biology has been the delineation of which adult mammalian tissues possess regenerative capacity, presumably reflecting resident stem cell function. What are the latest developments in the chemistry of adhesives?

Molecular biology & Genetics Topics

Is it possible to predict the next pandemic? Is using drones for warfare a good or bad idea? Can endangered areas and animals be saved by helping local people develop alternative economies like raising tropical fish or ecotourism? While the side supporting the research claims that the research could bring about the cure for many types of diseases and help save the lives of millions. How can poultry farmers best prevent diseases like bird flu? How can metal oxides improve cell phones? Even were these issues all resolved in short order, the potential toxicity e. Can nanomedicine potentially extend the human lifespan?

The Controversial Topic of Stem-Cell Research in the United States

Norman E. Sharpless Norman E. Summary In many tissues, mammalian aging is associated with a decline in the replicative and functional capacity of somatic stem cells and other self-renewing compartments. Understanding the basis of this decline is a major goal paper aging cell. In particular, therapeutic research to ameliorate research reverse the age-associated loss of stem function could be of use topics clinical geriatrics. This period has also been marked by for recent award of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for elucidation of telomeres and telomerase, a topic of stem importance to stem cell essay writers for hire uk models.
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Stem cell research topics for research paper
Aging in mammalian stem cells and other self-renewing compartments. What is the future of surgical robots? How can food crops be best made more nutritious? Cell Stem Cell. Dorshkind, Witte and colleagues suggested an intriguing link between cancer and aging in a study of early B-lymphocyte progenitors Signer et al. The introduction and expansion of embryonic stem cell research initiated a highly debated ethical topic.

The Conversation

What is nanomaterial? Evidence for cardiomyocyte renewal in humans. How can poultry beef or pork farmers find the best solutions to increase or sustain their production levels? Should we use nanobots to produce and deliver drugs to human patients? What are stem cells? What are embryonic stem cells?
Stem cell research topics for research paper
Can our society agree to disagree? Expression of p16INK4a, which promotes cellular senescence, is an indisputable barrier to melanocyte transformation, and other groups have suggested an increase in melanocyte senescence might play some role in graying. We live in southern California Ken April 12, at am I wish that I had the microbiology knowledge to better understand stem cells. How can it best be treated? In conclusion, the use of…… [Read More] Landry, D. Similarly, telomere dysfunction and other forms of DNA damage, which may be more prevalent in cells from elderly individuals, were also shown to decrease the efficiency of reprogramming in a pdependent manner Marion et al.

How many patients do you think this has helped since then? The acknowledgement of this aspect of the debate is acknowledged on both sides, and is a point of commonality between them. The Molecular Biology of Aging. This period has also been marked by the recent award of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for elucidation of telomeres and telomerase, a topic of critical importance to stem cell aging. Norman E.
Stem cell research topics for research paper
Are microbes that create chemicals and antibiotics going to help us prevent infections? There is a degree of moral ambiguity related to the debate of stem cell research -- based on the conception of when life actually begins. Google Smart Contacts and NPR Report on Google Contacts for Diabetics : Google has developed "smart glasses" which are being tested, but the company is also interested in using microcomputers to help diabetics monitor blood sugar levels. How can nanotechnology be used to work with DNA? Expression of p16INK4a, which promotes cellular senescence, is an indisputable barrier to melanocyte transformation, and other groups have suggested an increase in melanocyte senescence might play some role in graying. Is it possible to predict the next pandemic?

Why doesn't rising global food production feed people who are hungry? The reconciliation of these results with the transplantation results, as well as with studies by Rossi, Weissman and colleagues showing increased DNA damage in normal HSC with aging Rossi et al. Can microelectronics inside of contact lenses help diabetics control their blood sugar?
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What are those solutions and how can farmers be encouraged to follow those best practices? Even were these issues all resolved in short order, the potential toxicity e. Likewise, if integration-free mechanisms to induce iPS cells to differentiate into desired tissues can be developed and refined, and such approaches can be validated and scaled for clinical use, one expects the therapeutic testing of patient-specific, iPS-derived cell-based therapies in the near term, although the pace of clinical trials is likely to disappoint those used to the thrills of basic science. What are embryonic stem cells?

Are chemicals from pharmaceuticals ending up in our water supply? Environment and Ecology Is it a good idea that the U. Aging in mammalian stem cells and other self-renewing compartments. Linking the p53 tumour suppressor pathway to somatic cell reprogramming.
Stem cell research topics for research paper
In , this notion was questioned by Conboy, Wagers, Rando and colleagues, who used elegant parabiosis experiments to demonstrate that muscle stem cell aging was largely governed by milieu Conboy et al. The Stem Cell is put into a petri dish where it will be cultured and feed nutrients Bethesda. This source provides an overview of the debate regarding morality of stem cell research. How can "smart clothes" be used to help medical patients? Can memory loss and dementia be prevented? Why do birds have such beautifully colored feathers?
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Bagal

From giving back vision to rebuilding tissue, any advance in stem cell research would be beneficial to the medical world. Are microbes that create chemicals and antibiotics going to help us prevent infections? The Stem Cell is put into a petri dish where it will be cultured and feed nutrients Bethesda.

Dirn

How can the hardest crystal, boron nitride, be best used in practical applications? Genes Dev.

Tojajinn

Norman E. The complex exchange of information from the interior and exterior of a cell may blur this distinction, but the common assumption among stem cell experts has held for some time that major changes in stem cell function with aging are intrinsic. How can the hardest crystal, boron nitride, be best used in practical applications?

Goltigrel

How can harmful algal blooms be prevented? The Stem Cell is put into a petri dish where it will be cultured and feed nutrients Bethesda. Cell-based therapeutics that rely on iPS cells, ES cells, or transplantation of somatic stem cells may be expensive and still confront technical challenges that may turn out to be considerable impediments to human use.

Magrel

What are important trends in medicinal chemistry research in India?

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