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You'll point to know very soon whether the lawyer believes the accused to be guilty or not guilty, and how the thesis plans to convince you.
Writing Tips « Writers Workshop: Writer Resources « The Center for Writing Studies, Illinois
Readers of thesis essays are like jury members: before they have read too far, they want to know what the essay argues as well as how the writer plans to make the argument. After reading your thesis statement, the reader should think, "This essay is going to try to convince me of how. I'm not convinced yet, but I'm interested to see ap united essays history example essays I might be.
Superlatives like "the best" almost always lead to trouble. It's impossible to weigh every "thing" that ever happened in Europe. And what about the point of Hitler.
Couldn't that be "the best thing". A good thesis has two parts.Defining the Thesis Statement What is a thesis statement? Every paper you write should have a main point, a main idea, or central message. The argument s you make in your paper should reflect this main idea. The sentence that captures your position on this main idea is what we call a thesis statement. How long does it need to be?
It should tell what you plan to argue, and it should "telegraph" how you plan to argue—that is, what particular support for your claim is going where in your introduce. Steps in Constructing a Thesis First, analyze your primary sources. Does the author contradict how or herself. Is how point made and later reversed.
Good: Reading develops a child's mind by fostering comprehension skills, increasing vocabulary, and exposing them to new worlds they might not otherwise encounter. Bad: All retirees should relocate to Florida. This broad thesis statement runs the risk of allowing you to go off on several tangents. Bad: The internet has improved the lives of many. Also, you should run your thesis statement past the "What's in it for me? Why should readers care? Good: The internet serves as a means of expediently connecting people across the globe, fostering new friendships and an exchange of ideas that wouldn't have occurred prior to its inception. Sometimes it is useful to mention your supporting points in your thesis. An example of this could be: John Updike's Trust Me is a valuable novel for a college syllabus because it allows the reader to become familiar with his writing and provides themes that are easily connected to other works. In the body of your paper, you could write a paragraph or two about each supporting idea. Points forward to the conclusion. Always stated in your introduction. Usually at the end of the first paragraph. Take a position on the topic. After reflecting on the topic a little while longer, you decide that what you really want to say about this topic is that something should be done to reduce the amount of sugar these children consume. You revise your thesis statement to look like this: More attention should be paid to the food and beverage choices available to elementary school children. This statement asserts your position, but the terms more attention and food and beverage choices are vague. Use specific language. You decide to explain what you mean about food and beverage choices, so you write: Experts estimate that half of elementary school children consume nine times the recommended daily allowance of sugar. Provide relevant background A good introduction also needs to contain enough background information to allow the reader to understand the thesis statement and arguments. The amount of background information required will depend on the topic. There should be enough background information so you don't have to spend too much time with it in the body of the thesis, but not so much that it becomes uninteresting. Give the reader a general knowledge of what the paper is about Let the reader know what the purpose of the study is. Do not expect to come up with a fully formulated thesis statement before you have finished writing the paper. The thesis will inevitably change as you revise and develop your ideas—and that is ok! Start with a tentative thesis and revise as your paper develops. Is your thesis statement original? Avoid, avoid, avoid generic arguments and formula statements. They work well to get a rough draft started, but will easily bore a reader. Keep revising until the thesis reflects your real ideas. Be prepared to explain why the point you are making is worthy of a paper. It's impossible to weigh every "thing" that ever happened in Europe. And what about the fall of Hitler? Couldn't that be "the best thing"? A good thesis has two parts. It should tell what you plan to argue, and it should "telegraph" how you plan to argue—that is, what particular support for your claim is going where in your essay. Steps in Constructing a Thesis First, analyze your primary sources. The methods section should answering the following questions and caveats: Could one accurately replicate the study for example, all of the optional and adjustable parameters on any sensors or instruments that were used to acquire the data? Could another researcher accurately find and reoccupy the sampling stations or track lines? Is there enough information provided about any instruments used so that a functionally equivalent instrument could be used to repeat the experiment? If the data are in the public domain, could another researcher lay his or her hands on the identical data set? Could one replicate any laboratory analyses that were used? Could one replicate any statistical analyses? Could another researcher approximately replicate the key algorithms of any computer software? Citations in this section should be limited to data sources and references of where to find more complete descriptions of procedures. Do not include descriptions of results. Results The results are actual statements of observations, including statistics, tables and graphs. Indicate information on range of variation. Mention negative results as well as positive. Do not interpret results - save that for the discussion. Lay out the case as for a jury. Present sufficient details so that others can draw their own inferences and construct their own explanations. Use S. Break up your results into logical segments by using subheadings Key results should be stated in clear sentences at the beginning of paragraphs. Describe the nature of the findings; do not just tell the reader whether or not they are significant. Note: Results vs. Discussion Sections Quarantine your observations from your interpretations. The writer must make it crystal clear to the reader which statements are observation and which are interpretation. In most circumstances, this is best accomplished by physically separating statements about new observations from statements about the meaning or significance of those observations. Alternatively, this goal can be accomplished by careful use of phrases such as "I infer How do you do this? Physical separation into different sections or paragraphs. Don't overlay interpretation on top of data in figures.
What are the deeper implications of how author's argument. Figuring out the why to one or more of these questions, or to related questions, will put you on the path to developing a working thesis.
Thesis Statement Examples
Without the why, you probably have only come how with an observation—that there are, for instance, many different metaphors in such-and-such a poem—which is not a thesis.
Once you have a working thesis, write it down. There is nothing as frustrating as hitting on a great idea for a thesis, then forgetting it when you lose concentration.
You change your thesis to look like this: Reducing sugar consumption by elementary school children. Do not expect to come up with a fully formulated thesis statement before you have finished writing the paper. Start with a tentative thesis and revise as your paper develops. Discussion Start with a few sentences that summarize the most important results. Your thesis statement is no exception to your writing: it needs to be as clear as possible. Show the uncertainty in your data with error bars.
And by writing down your thesis you will be forced to think of it clearly, logically, and concisely. You probably essay not be able to write out a final-draft introduce of your thesis the essay time you try, but you'll get yourself on the right track by writing down what you have. Keep your thesis prominent in your introduction.
A good, standard place for your thesis statement is at the end of an introductory paragraph, especially in shorter thesis essays. Readers how used to introduce theses there, so they automatically pay more point when they read the last sentence of your introduction. Although this is not required in all academic essays, it is a good rule of thumb.
Anticipate the counterarguments. Once you have a working thesis, you should think about what might be said against it.
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This will help you to refine your thesis, and it will also make you think of the arguments that you'll need to refute later on in how point. Every argument has a counterargument. If yours doesn't, then it's not an argument—it may be a essay, or an opinion, but it is not an argument. Michael Dukakis lost the presidential election because he failed to campaign vigorously after essay theses about harrasment Democratic National Convention.
This statement is on its way to point a thesis.
Order essay paper onlineTip: Check your thesis: Are there two large statements connected loosely by a coordinating conjunction i. Would a subordinating conjunction help i. Or do the two statements imply a fuzzy unfocused thesis? If so, settle on one single focus and then proceed with further development. Is your thesis statement too general? Your thesis should be limited to what can be accomplished in the specified number of pages. Shape your topic so that you can get straight to the "meat" of it. Being specific in your paper will be much more successful than writing about general things that do not say much. Don't settle for three pages of just skimming the surface. The opposite of a focused, narrow, crisp thesis is a broad, sprawling, superficial thesis. Compare this original thesis too general with three possible revisions more focused, each presenting a different approach to the same topic : Original thesis: There are serious objections to today's horror movies. Revised theses: Because modern cinematic techniques have allowed filmmakers to get more graphic, horror flicks have desensitized young American viewers to violence. The pornographic violence in "bloodbath" slasher movies degrades both men and women. Today's slasher movies fail to deliver the emotional catharsis that s horror films did. Did you discover any new ideas or connections? Can you separate any of the things you jotted down into categories? Do you notice any themes? Think about using ideas generated during this process to shape your thesis statement and your paper. Plus Icon. Writing with them in your mind will help you to be as clear as possible which will make your thesis better understandable and more enjoyable overall. Hook the reader and grab their attention The first sentence of the paper is crucial. Looking back at your own research, how many papers have you skipped just because reading the first few sentences they couldn't grab your attention? It is common to start with a question or quotation, but these types of hooks have become overused. The best way to start your introduction is with a sentence that is broad and interesting and seamlessly transitions into your argument. Also, starting with a broader statement will appeal to a wider audience. How do you do this? Physical separation into different sections or paragraphs. Don't overlay interpretation on top of data in figures. Careful use of phrases such as "We infer that ". Don't worry if "results" seem short. Easier for your reader to absorb, frequent shifts of mental mode not required. Ensures that your work will endure in spite of shifting paradigms. Discussion Start with a few sentences that summarize the most important results. The discussion section should be a brief essay in itself, answering the following questions and caveats: What are the major patterns in the observations? Refer to spatial and temporal variations. What are the relationships, trends and generalizations among the results? What are the exceptions to these patterns or generalizations? What are the likely causes mechanisms underlying these patterns resulting predictions? Is there agreement or disagreement with previous work? Interpret results in terms of background laid out in the introduction - what is the relationship of the present results to the original question? What is the implication of the present results for other unanswered questions in earth sciences, ecology, environmental policy, etc? Multiple hypotheses: There are usually several possible explanations for results. Be careful to consider all of these rather than simply pushing your favorite one. If you can eliminate all but one, that is great, but often that is not possible with the data in hand. In that case you should give even treatment to the remaining possibilities, and try to indicate ways in which future work may lead to their discrimination. Avoid bandwagons: A special case of the above. Avoid jumping a currently fashionable point of view unless your results really do strongly support them. What are the things we now know or understand that we didn't know or understand before the present work? Include the evidence or line of reasoning supporting each interpretation. What is the significance of the present results: why should we care? This section should be rich in references to similar work and background needed to interpret results. Is there material that does not contribute to one of the elements listed above? If so, this may be material that you will want to consider deleting or moving. Break up the section into logical segments by using subheads. Conclusions What is the strongest and most important statement that you can make from your observations? If you met the reader at a meeting six months from now, what do you want them to remember about your paper? Refer back to problem posed, and describe the conclusions that you reached from carrying out this investigation, summarize new observations, new interpretations, and new insights that have resulted from the present work. Include the broader implications of your results. Do not repeat word for word the abstract, introduction or discussion. Recommendations Include when appropriate most of the time Remedial action to solve the problem. Further research to fill in gaps in our understanding. Directions for future investigations on this or related topics. Acknowledgments Advisor s and anyone who helped you: technically including materials, supplies financially for example, departmental support, travel grants References cite all ideas, concepts, text, data that are not your own if you make a statement, back it up with your own data or a reference all references cited in the text must be listed cite single-author references by the surname of the author followed by date of the publication in parenthesis Simpson and Hays cite more than double-author references by the surname of the first author followed by et al. Pfirman, Simpson and Hays would be: Pfirman et al. Nature, , National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Commonly asked questions about ozone. Pfirman, S. In other words, unless your purpose is simply to inform, your thesis is considered persuasive. A persuasive thesis usually contains an opinion and the reason why your opinion is true. Example: Peanut butter and jelly sandwiches are the best type of sandwich because they are versatile, easy to make, and taste good. In this persuasive thesis statement, you see that I state my opinion the best type of sandwich , which means I have chosen a stance. Next, I explain that my opinion is correct with several key reasons. The first style uses a list of two or more points. This style of thesis is perfect for a brief essay that contains only two or three body paragraphs. This basic five-paragraph essay is typical of middle and high school assignments.
However, it is too easy college essay prompts texas examples imagine possible counterarguments. For example, a political observer might believe that Dukakis lost because he suffered from a "soft-on-crime" image. If you complicate your thesis by anticipating the counterargument, you'll strengthen your essay, as shown in the sentence below.A strong thesis statement gives direction to the paper and limits what you need to write about. Compare the original thesis not specific and clear enough with the revised version much more specific and clear : Original thesis: Although the timber wolf is a timid and gentle animal, it is being systematically exterminated. When developing your one-sentence thesis statement, it is important for you to be: specific, specific, specific. Limitations, assumptions, and range of validity. Results The results are actual statements of observations, including statistics, tables and graphs. Bad: Reading can develop a child's analytical mind. If you are having trouble beginning your paper or writing your thesis, take a piece of paper and write down everything that comes to mind about your topic. You probably will not be able to write out a final-draft version of your thesis the first time you try, but you'll get yourself on the right track by writing down what you have.
While Dukakis' "soft-on-crime" image hurt his chances in the election, his failure to campaign vigorously after the Democratic National Convention essay a greater responsibility for his defeat. Some Caveats and Some Examples A thesis is never a question. Readers of academic essays expect to have questions introduced, explored, or even answered. A question "Why did communism collapse in Eastern Europe. A thesis is never a list.
However, political, economic, thesis and cultural points are pretty much the only possible reasons why communism could collapse.
This sentence lacks tension and doesn't advance an argument. Everyone knows that politics, economics, and culture are important.
A thesis should never be vague, combative or confrontational.
How to write a good thesis introduction - Paperpile
An ineffective thesis would be, "Communism collapsed in Eastern Europe because communism is evil. It also may spark a defensive reaction from readers sympathetic to communism.
If readers strongly disagree with you right off the bat, they may stop reading. An owl purdue braided essay format thesis has a definable, arguable claim. This thesis makes a definite, arguable claim: how the disintegration of economies introduced a more important role than cultural forces in defeating communism in Eastern Europe. The reader would react to this statement by thinking, "Perhaps what the author says is true, but I am not convinced.
I school should start later argumentative essay to read further to see how the author argues this claim. Avoid overused, general terms and abstractions. For example, "Communism collapsed in Eastern Europe because of the ruling elite's inability to address the economic essays of the people" is more powerful than "Communism collapsed due to societal point.