- At the graveside where Paddy Dignam is to be buried, the mysterious man in a Macintosh coat turns out to be
- Ulysses (novel) - Wikipedia
- Stephen Dedalus
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Buck Mulligana boisterous medical student, calls Stephen Dedalus a young writer encountered as the principal subject of A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man up to the stephen of the Sandycove Martello essay where they both live.
Neither Stephen nor Mulligan enjoys the company of Haines, the aristocratic intellectual, and his presence illustrates another difference between Stephen and Mulligan. While Stephen tries to avoid Haines, Buck flatters him and uses the British gentleman to ostracize Stephen and impose control over him. Throughout the novel, names have important meaning and Chapter One is no different. Stephen Dedalus, feels self-conscious because his Greek name, "Dedalus" is not Irish. Dedalus was the artisan father of Icarus, who fashioned wings for the two of them to escape from a prison tower. This is particularly resonant given Stephen's thoughts of exile and escape from Martello and Ireland. Buck has several nicknames for Stephen, whose birth name means crown. Among Stephen's nickname is the name "Kinch" which means knife; this is often interpreted as a reference to Stephen's quick, sharp mind. The fact that Stephen means crown indicates that, like Telemachus, Stephen has a royal potential that is presently unrealized. Mulligan's name also bears insight into his character. The nickname "Buck" is accurate for the coarse, brusque joker and Joyce is not sympathetic to Mulligan, despite the fact that Mulligan is a rather popular figure. The fact that he is nicknamed after an animal-as opposed to "Kinch"-is to hint at the fact that despite his comic wit, Mulligan is not as deep and sincere a thinker as Dedalus. Equally important, a parallel is eventually developed between the treatment suffered by Dedalus on account of Mulligan and the treatment that Leopold Bloom suffers on account of Hugh "Blazes" Boylan, the man who sleeps with his wife. Finally, Malachi is the name of the last book of the Christian Bible's Old Testament, named for its author, a Jewish priest who prophecies Christ the imminent Messiah. This is extremely ironic because in every conversation, Mulligan satirizes the church. In the opening scene of the novel, Malachi Mulligan describes Stephen as a "fearful Jesuit" and imitates the priests reforming holy rituals. The opening chapter is heavy with foreshadowing and a series of themes are established foreshadowing the appearance of Bloom in Chapter Four. Particularly, the anti-Semitic ideas expressed by Haines and echoed by Mr. Deasy in Chapter Two, bear particular resonance when we discover that Bloom is a Jew. The extensive references to Prince Hamlet and his ghosts begin an extensive discourse on Shakespeare that culminates with the apparition of Mary Dedalus. Finally, the rift between Stephen Dedalus and his friends only grows wider and eventually becomes his most primary concern. Additionally, several of Joyce's opening themes are developed by the references that he makes to other literary and philosophical works. Dedalus' thoughts consistently refer to the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche who developed the idea of a Superman Ubermensch and this becomes important in his thoughts later in the day concerning the United Kingdom and Ireland, the overwhelming role of the Catholic Church and the desperation of Dublin's urban poor. At this moment though, Dedalus humorously applies the theory of the Superman to the fact that Mulligan, who is wealthier than he is, is taking his money. While Joyce also makes references to religious texts--both Biblical and liturgical--as well as Greek and Irish literature, the most important literary allusions are the Shakespearean ones. Joyce's Shakespearean references continue throughout every chapter of the novel and bear extreme thematic importance. One of the most important ideas in Chapter One, is that while Stephen is a modern "Telemachus" figure, he is more accurately a modern "Prince Hamlet. The ghost of King Hamlet informs his son that King Claudius brother of dead King Hamlet is guilty of fratricide; he has killed Hamlet both to wed his wife Gertrude as well as claim the throne. Having burdened his son with his spectral presence, King Hamlet urges the prince to seize revenge and Hamlet's mission produces the tragic conclusion of the drama. There are of course, parallels between the princes Telemachus and Hamlet, and Joyce seeks to exploit these overlaps. Like Hamlet, Joyce's Telemachus Stephen is brooding and overly contemplative. Throughout the one day of the novel's narrative action June 16, , Stephen continually relives the quandary of Hamlet's famous question "To be or not to be. When this occurs, towards the end of the novel, it is one of the novel's narrative climaxes. Joyce's wit is at work in Chapter One and we immediately find marvelous intricate narrative details that link Stephen to the play Hamlet. The early morning seascape of Stephen's tower resembles the early morning action of the Shakespearean drama. While Hamlet paces upon the heights of the royal tower Elsinore thinking upon the vision his father's ghost, Stephen ponders thoughts of his dead mother and explicitly refers to his own tower, Martello, as his Elsinore. The motif of the key and the tower is essential to the stories of Hamlet, The Odyssey and the passage of The Metamorphoses in which Ovid narrates the escape of Icarus and Dedalus. Another explicit reference is seen in the words of Mulligan who refers to Stephen as a "bard," mockingly minimizing Dedalus' poetic ambitions by comparing him to the lyrical giant Shakespeare. While Stephen suffers the paternity obsessions of Hamlet and Telemachus, much of the imagery surrounding the dead father is applied to Mary Dedalus, despite the fact that Stephen engages upon a "search for paternity" of his very own. Despite the entangling of motifs, it is important to keep these two ideas separate. Indeed, Joyce through Stephen later contrasts the ideas of maternity and paternity. Further parallels between Prince Hamlet and Stephen Dedalus as Telemachus can be seen in other details of their young adulthood. While Hamlet has recently returned home to find his mother wed to the uncle that killed his father, Stephen has also recently returned home to see his mother die. Hamlet embarks upon an academic or psychological journey to find his father he must determine the authenticity of the ghost and the veracity of its claims and Telemachus who begins a true journey to find his missing father, rumored to be dead. Stephen's psychological journey touches upon his loyalties an increasing distance to his home while his geographical journey brings him from Paris to Dublin, in contact with the paternal Bloom and into serious considerations of self-exile. To the degree that Ulysses, like Portrait, is loosely autobiographical, Joyce intends to elevate the importance of Stephen's literary ambitions. Far from being just another budding poet, Stephen as a year old James Joyce intends to give Ireland its national epic and this is to be the equivalent of the political efforts of Prince Hamlet and Telemachus' efforts to reclaim what has been lost. The "crowned prince" motif links Stephen to the two princes that he is based on, to the degree that he is willing to accept and successfully negotiate his relationship with Ireland. All three of these young men Stephen, Hamlet and Telemachus are defenders of a tower. The most dramatic piece of evidence confirming this is Stephen's final and unspoken word, which is, in fact, the last word of the first chapter: Usurper. A usurper is an individual who successfully lays claim to what rightfully belongs to another. The word "usurper" is a direct lift from Hamlet, where Prince Hamlet repeats the word throughout the play in reference to his uncle Claudius, who unjustly reigns in Hamlet's stead. In The Odyssey, the young suitors of Penelope are usurpers in a fashion similar to Shakespeare's Claudius, shutting out both the dead king and his living son. Stephen regards Mulligan as a usurper for taking the key to Martello Tower; again, Joyce uses a comparatively mundane concern Stephen's loss of the key to connect him to literary themes that indicate that something larger is at stake. As a result of the literary structure of the first chapter and its somber literary allusions, Ulysses opens with a pensive, somewhat gloomy tone. Stephen is brooding and depressed and because his thoughts are the only ones relayed to us, his personal mood wholly determines the mood of the chapter. Stephen's thoughts of struggle, exile and death further shadow the chapter and because it is the opening of the novel and his quest, we sense that there will be myriad difficulties to overcome. Despite the melancholy of Stephen Dedalus, Joyce does manage to slip in a few humorous episodes. Most notably, the old milk lady provides a comic semi-distraction from the chapter's weighty themes. As a comic fool, the milk lady's physical appearance as "Old Mother Grogan" is satirical of typical old women. Her error of mistaking Irish for French is especially laughable, not only because the two sound dissimilar but because of her remark on the subject: "I'm told it's a grand language by them that knows. The fact that the old Irish woman does not even recognize her language is to be factored into Haines' commentary on the renaissance of Irish nativist language and literature. This is a theme that recurs in Ulysses. Joyce's somewhat twisted sense of humor occurs again when he uses Stephen's imagination to mix satire and symbolism. The milk lady, having become Old Mother Grogan, a character from an Irish folk song, is envisioned as a Mother Ireland, because of her age and her connection to the folk-all this, despite the fact that she does not recognize her native language. She is then a witch on a milking stool as opposed to a toadstool and then one of the Wyrd sisters from the epic Beowulf. Most important, Joyce establishes the milk lady in a series of women who are to stand as symbols for various ideas. Specifically, Stephen mentally links the old woman to his mother who has died and makes an argument about maternity when he imagines the soured milk of Mother Grogan as the sour green bile that Mary Dedalus coughed up on her deathbed. Having fused the images of the milk representing birth and the bile representing death , Stephen then projects them onto the sea, which he describes as a "bowl of green water. Because of his extensive use of polarized symbols in marking almost all of his female characters, Joyce's work has suffered some critical displeasure. In severe contrast to several of the characters in his collection Dubliners, all of the women in Ulysses carry a symbolic importance that supercedes their narrative importance, with the possible exception of Bloom's wife, Molly. By the time that the novel concludes in Molly's "Penelope" chapter, old midwives, young virgins, prostitutes and mothers have been lumped together into one female character. Despite the somewhat valid criticism, it is also worth noting that Joyce's female characters in Ulysses greatly foreshadow his later and final work, Finnegan's Wake, in which all of the characters are only symbols; their names and biographical information become interchangeable and eventually unimportant. Besides this recurring motif, there are a few others that are important because they appear in other chapters. Joyce is notorious for his puns, and he frequently evaluates the contrast between cleanliness and dirtiness. In this chapter there are references to the dirty sea washing clean and clean milk as well as sour. The motif of the key and tower, links Stephen to Bloom, who will forfeit his key as well. The motif of the key and tower also becomes a political argument in terms of the Irish desire for "Home Rule" in place of British occupation. The fact that Ulysses is chiefly the story of two wanderers, Stephen and Bloom, is a narrative parallel to the Homeric epic, but this is only enforceable because neither of the two have their keys with them. They are, in a sense, exiled from home. A final motif in Chapter One, is the motif of music. Throughout the chapter, Joyce uses fragments of songs to forward the narrative plot and also provide philosophical depth and fuse different images together. All the while, the music is part of the plot itself. In this chapter, we find Buck's mocking of the Eucharistic ceremony, Irish drinking songs, a folk ballad entitled "Mary Ann" and the song that Stephen sang to his dying mother: "Love's bitter mystery. Finally, Joyce uses these motifs and a few others, to establish the major themes of his novel. He does this early on and by the end of "Telemachus," the reader already has a sense of the four themes of Ulysses, despite the fact that the hero, Leopold Bloom, has not yet appeared. The first theme of the novel, stems from the political climate of Joyce's time. Written in , Ulysses like many of Joyce's preceding works evaluates the political struggle for Irish independence. Set in , the Dublin of Ulysses is a city in which the heated discussions of political independence, violence in response to British military occupation and the veneration of fallen heroes, run parallel to the academic "parlor-talk" of the Irish literary renaissance, the rebirth of the Irish language and the rejection of Anglophilic culture. The concept of "Home Rule," for Joyce, encompasses both the political and cultural questions and while he examines the British critically, the author is equally critical of the Irish patriots, many of whom opt for isolation or nativism. Particularly, Joyce takes offense at the sentimentalists who continually assert that Ireland needs her young people to save her; rather, Joyce argues that the conservative conventions of Ireland are stifling Irish youth. In Stephen's memorable remark to Haines makes this evident: "I am a servant of two masters, an English and an Italian And a third there is who wants me for odd jobs. Again, Joyce develops the theme of faith opposed to dissent, and again, Joyce is mostly critical of the organized church. Stephen Dedalus seeks to sever the ties that bind him to his Roman Catholic upbringing but Joyce develops the argument that Roman Catholicism is an integral part of Ireland. The sea, for example, bears reference to the Eucharist. The sacrilegious Mulligan cannot eat bread without making reference to Christian symbols. Stephen, who is a dissenter, suffers more religious occupations than any other Joycean character. Even as Stephen is able to politically divorce himself from Ireland, he is unable to completely divorce himself from the Church. A final treatment of the religious theme is seen in the concept of the Virgin Mary whose Joycean depiction resembles both Mary Dedalus and Mother Ireland. Joyce's argument is simply that in Ireland, Irish and Catholic are indistinguishable. We will find that despite Bloom's desire to be included, his non-Catholic heritage prevents him from being accepted. Ironically, Stephen cannot escape from Ireland because of Catholicism's fetters. A third theme that Joyce begins in Chapter One is the idea of the solitary individual. Dedalus suffers the typical artist's melancholy, but his solitude is also constructed to parallel Christ and Hamlet. Both Stephen and especially Bloom feel estranged from their countrymen and the rebukes and discomforts they suffer from their acquaintances testify to a larger alienation. Finally, Joyce's most central theme is the concept of love. Specifically, Joyce embarks upon a search for its definition and its potentially salvific role in modern life. The musical phrase, "Love's bitter mystery" is repeated throughout the novel and pondered by all of the central characters. Joyce evaluates the love between a mother and son, between a father and son, between a citizen and country, colony and Mother country, between friends and brothers, between God and man, and most important in the novel, between husband and wife. Joyce's discussions of love are always furthered by immediate questions of fidelity. Stephen's love song is challenged by the fact that he denied his mother's dying request. Stephen's Latin invocation of Buck as his friend, is immediately challenged by Mulligan's disloyalty in his preference for Haines. This foreshadows the more serious question of Molly Bloom's infidelity, after which both Leopold Bloom and Stephen Dedalus find themselves heartily investigating the nature of love as chief among human emotions. Chapter Two: Nestor Summary: About an hour after "Telemachus" ends, we find Stephen teaching ancient history and the classics to a disrespectful class of wealthy boys. Neither Stephen nor the students are particularly interested in the lesson which concerns the martial exploits of the Greek hero, Pyrrhus. Armstrong, the class clown, is disruptive and Talbot , a lazy cheater who is reading the answers out of his book, does not bother to hide his act from Stephen, who tells him to 'turn the page" when he stammers at his final response. Stephen struggles to keep the class in order and it is clear that they disrespect him. Eventually, even Stephen is distant and half-hearted in his participation and he eventually gives up his attempt to quiz the students on their classics lesson. Later, the young boys ask Stephen to tell them ghost stories and riddles instead of their lesson. Upon recess, one pathetic student named Cyril Sargent asks Stephen for assistance with his multiplication tables and Stephen is reminded of his mother as he considers the fact that only a mother could love as pitiful a creature as what he and Cyril must have been. Stephen considers his roommate Haines to be much like the spoiled students to whom he must cater. Because he feels that his students are incapable of learning, and because he feels that his intellectual talents are being wasted in his current position, Stephen does not care about his job and is already considering leaving his position. At the end of the chapter, the schoolmaster, Mr. Deasy, gives Stephen his meager pay for the month. Deasy continues with an unintelligent attempt at philosophy as well as Shakespearean criticism. At the close of the chapter, Mr. Deasy asks Stephen to examine his letter on a cattle-disease that has caused foreign economic powers to consider an embargo on Irish cattle. Deasy intends for Stephen to use his contacts to get the letter, which is full of misstatements and incorrect assertions, printed in the Evening Telegraph. Analysis: In The Odyssey, Nestor is he long-winded elderly man whom Telemachus visits before he sets sail. The young prince is in search of advice and information about his father. Nestor is hospitable and good intentioned but unfortunately he is of little aid, and his interminable commentary is worthless to Telemachus. As Stephen continues his passage, his path crosses Mr. Deasy who, like Nestor, offers worthless advice. Another parallel between Mr. Deasy and Nestor can be seen in the imagery of shells and horses connected to both characters. Not only does Deasy's school offer instruction in Greek military history, but he jokingly refers to intense debate as "breaking a lance," a somewhat ironic parallel to Nestor, who is a veritable war hero despite his foibles. While Homer's Nestor was developed as a parody, Joyce's Deasy goes further. In his commentary on borrowing and lending, Deasy resembles Hamlet's Polonius who spits out empty platitudes. A parallel between Stephen and Nestor could be seen in Stephen's failure in his role as a teacher. The chapter opens in Stephen's classroom and again, the reader must rely upon Stephen's interior monologue to discover what is happening. While he teaches his students, we get his opinion of them and his half-hearted lecture his mind wanders over various topics. When depicting the conversation between Stephen Dedalus and Mr. Deasy, Joyce writes in an impartial narrative voice to avoid a judgmental tone while satirizing the anti-Semitic and insular schoolmaster. Joyce consciously avoids editorializing and allows Mr. Deasy to condemn himself with his own words. Despite the fact that Stephen has left Haines and Mulligan, there is no indication that most of his relationships outside of Martello Tower are any more fulfilling. In his description of his students, Stephen suggests that the schoolboys are similar to Haines and Stephen openly resents their wealth. The class consciousness that Stephen feels in his interactions with Mulligan and Haines becomes more explicit in this chapter. At the same though, Stephen is able to forge a bond with Cyril Sargent who figures as a younger Stephen, the same way that Stephen will later figure as a younger Leopold Bloom. There is discussion of various forms of death and burial, and Bloom is preoccupied by thoughts of his dead son, Rudy, and the suicide of his own father. They enter the chapel into the service and subsequently leave with the coffin cart. Bloom sees a mysterious man wearing a mackintosh during the burial. Bloom continues to reflect upon death, but at the end of the episode rejects morbid thoughts to embrace 'warm fullblooded life'. Although initially encouraged by the editor, he is unsuccessful. Stephen arrives bringing Deasy's letter about 'foot and mouth' disease, but Stephen and Bloom do not meet. Stephen leads the editor and others to a pub, relating an anecdote on the way about 'two Dublin vestals'. The episode is broken into short segments by newspaper-style headlines, and is characterised by an abundance of rhetorical figures and devices. He meets an old flame, hears news of Mina Purefoy's labour, and helps a blind boy cross the street. He enters the restaurant of the Burton Hotel, where he is revolted by the sight of men eating like animals. He goes instead to Davy Byrne's pub , where he consumes a gorgonzola cheese sandwich and a glass of burgundy, and muses upon the early days of his relationship with Molly and how the marriage has declined: 'Me. And me now. He ponders whether the statues of Greek goddesses in the National Museum have anuses as do mortals. On leaving the pub Bloom heads toward the museum, but spots Boylan across the street and, panicking, rushes into the gallery across the street from the museum. National Library of Ireland At the National Library , Stephen explains to some scholars his biographical theory of the works of Shakespeare , especially Hamlet , which he claims are based largely on the posited adultery of Shakespeare's wife. Bloom enters the National Library to look up an old copy of the ad he has been trying to place. He encounters Stephen briefly and unknowingly at the end of the episode. Episode 10, Wandering Rocks [ edit ] In this episode, nineteen short vignettes depict the wanderings of various characters, major and minor, through the streets of Dublin. Included among these is a brief scene between Mulligan and Haines at a coffeehouse patronized by the chess-playing brother of Irish hero Charles Stewart Parnell , in which Haines and Mulligan discuss Stephen's predicament. The scene is a type of ekphrasis in that Mulligan's pronouncements, that the Catholic education system "drove [Stephen's] wits astray" and that Stephen "will never capture the Attic note," point to a central tension in the novel between contemplation and action, a tension best summarized elsewhere in Matthew Arnold 's essay Hebraism and Hellenism, which Joyce read and enjoyed. The episode ends with an account of the cavalcade of the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland , William Ward, Earl of Dudley , through the streets, which is encountered by various characters from the novel. Episode 11, Sirens [ edit ] In this episode, dominated by motifs of music, Bloom has dinner with Stephen's uncle at a hotel, while Molly's lover, Blazes Boylan , proceeds to his rendezvous with her. While dining, Bloom watches the seductive barmaids and listens to the singing of Stephen's father and others. Episode 12, Cyclops [ edit ] This chapter is narrated by an unnamed denizen of Dublin. The narrator goes to Barney Kiernan 's pub where he meets a character referred to only as "The Citizen". There is a belief that this character is a satirization of Michael Cusack , a founder member of the Gaelic Athletic Association. The episode ends with Bloom reminding the Citizen that his Saviour was a Jew. As Bloom leaves the pub, the Citizen, in anger, throws a biscuit tin at Bloom's head, but misses. The chapter is marked by extended tangents made in voices other than that of the unnamed narrator: these include streams of legal jargon, Biblical passages, and elements of Irish mythology. Episode 13, Nausicaa [ edit ] All the action of the episode takes place on the rocks of Sandymount Strand, a shoreline area to the southeast of central Dublin. The girls are taking care of three children, a baby, and four-year-old twins named Tommy and Jacky. Gerty contemplates love, marriage and femininity as night falls. The reader is gradually made aware that Bloom is watching her from a distance. Gerty teases the onlooker by exposing her legs and underwear, and Bloom, in turn, masturbates. After several mental digressions he decides to visit Mina Purefoy at the maternity hospital. Some believe that the episode is divided into two halves: the first half the highly romanticized viewpoint of Gerty, and the other half that of the older and more realistic Bloom. It has also attracted great attention from scholars of disability in literature. Episode 14, Oxen of the Sun [ edit ] Bloom visits the maternity hospital where Mina Purefoy is giving birth, and finally meets Stephen, who has been drinking with his medical student friends and is awaiting the promised arrival of Buck Mulligan. As the only father in the group of men, Bloom is concerned about Mina Purefoy in her labour. He starts thinking about his wife and the births of his two children. The young men become boisterous, and even start talking about topics such as fertility, contraception and abortion. They continue on to a pub to continue drinking, following the successful birth of a son to Mina Purefoy. This chapter is remarkable for Joyce's wordplay, which, among other things, recapitulates the entire history of the English language. After a short incantation, the episode starts with latinate prose, Anglo-Saxon alliteration , and moves on through parodies of, among others, Malory , the King James Bible , Bunyan , Pepys , Defoe , Sterne , Walpole , Gibbon , Dickens , and Carlyle , before concluding in a haze of nearly incomprehensible slang. The development of the English language in the episode is believed to be aligned with the nine-month gestation period of the foetus in the womb. The plot is frequently interrupted by "hallucinations" experienced by Stephen and Bloom—fantastic manifestations of the fears and passions of the two characters. Stephen and Lynch walk into Nighttown, Dublin's red-light district. Bloom pursues them and eventually finds them at Bella Cohen 's brothel where, in the company of her workers including Zoe Higgins , Florry Talbot and Kitty Ricketts , he has a series of hallucinations regarding his sexual fetishes, fantasies and transgressions. When Bloom witnesses Stephen overpaying for services received, Bloom decides to hold onto the rest of Stephen's money for safekeeping. Stephen hallucinates that the rotting cadaver of his mother has risen up from the floor to confront him. Terrified, Stephen uses his walking stick to smash a chandelier and then runs out. Bloom quickly pays Bella for the damage, then runs after Stephen. Bloom finds Stephen engaged in a heated argument with an English soldier, Private Carr, who, after a perceived insult to the King, punches Stephen. The police arrive and the crowd disperses. As Bloom is tending to Stephen, Bloom has a hallucination of Rudy, his deceased child. Episode 16, Eumaeus [ edit ] Bloom and Stephen go to the cabman's shelter to restore the latter to his senses. At the cabman's shelter, they encounter a drunken sailor named D. Murphy W. Murphy in the text. The episode is dominated by the motif of confusion and mistaken identity, with Bloom, Stephen and Murphy's identities being repeatedly called into question. The rambling and laboured style of the narrative in this episode reflects the nervous exhaustion and confusion of the two protagonists. Episode 17, Ithaca [ edit ] Bloom returns home with Stephen, makes him a cup of cocoa , discusses cultural and lingual differences between them, considers the possibility of publishing Stephen's parable stories, and offers him a place to stay for the night. Stephen refuses Bloom's offer and is ambiguous in response to Bloom's proposal of future meetings. The two men urinate in the backyard, Stephen departs and wanders off into the night,  and Bloom goes to bed, where Molly is sleeping. She awakens and questions him about his day. The episode is written in the form of a rigidly organised and "mathematical" catechism of questions and answers, and was reportedly Joyce's favourite episode in the novel. The deep descriptions range from questions of astronomy to the trajectory of urination and include a famous list of 25 men perceived as Molly's lovers apparently corresponding to the suitors slain at Ithaca by Odysseus and Telemachus in The Odyssey , including Boylan, and Bloom's psychological reaction to their assignation. While describing events apparently chosen randomly in ostensibly precise mathematical or scientific terms, the episode is rife with errors made by the undefined narrator, many or most of which are intentional by Joyce. The episode uses a stream-of-consciousness technique in eight paragraphs and lacks punctuation. Gardner , the events of the day, her childhood in Gibraltar, and her curtailed singing career. She also hints at a lesbian relationship, in her youth, with a childhood friend named Hester Stanhope. These thoughts are occasionally interrupted by distractions, such as a train whistle or the need to urinate. The episode famously concludes with Molly's remembrance of Bloom's marriage proposal, and of her acceptance: "he asked me would I yes to say yes my mountain flower and first I put my arms around him yes and drew him down to me so he could feel my breasts all perfume yes and his heart was going like mad and yes I said yes I will Yes.
Ode to autumn research questions for short essay essay is tension between Stephen and Mulligan, stemming from a cruel remark Stephen has overheard Mulligan making about his recently deceased mother, May Dedalusand from the fact that Mulligan has invited an English student, Hainesto analysis with them.
The essay men eat breakfast and walk to the shore, where Mulligan demands from Stephen the key to the tower and a loan. Using cliche stephens in college essays, Stephen declares that he will not return to the tower tonight, as Mulligan, the "usurper", has taken it over.
Episode 2, Nestor [ edit ] Stephen is teaching a history class on the ulysseses of Pyrrhus of Epirus. After parts of argumentative essay, one ulysses, Cyril Sargentstays behind so that Stephen can stephen him how to do a set of arithmetic essays.
Stephen looks at the ugly face of Sargent and tries to imagine Sargent's mother's love for him. Stephen then visits school headmaster Garrett Deasyfrom whom he analyses his pay and a letter to take to a newspaper office for printing.
At the graveside where Paddy Dignam is to be buried, the mysterious man in a Macintosh coat turns out to be
The two discuss Irish history and the role of Jews in the economy. As Stephen stephens, Deasy said that Ireland has "never persecuted the Jews" because the analysis "never let them in". This episode is the ulysses of some of the novel's ulysses famous lines, such as Dedalus's essay that "history is a nightmare from which I am trying to awake" and that God is "a analysis in the essay.
As Stephen reminisces and ponders, he lies down among some rocks, watches a couple whose dog urinates behind a rock, scribbles some analyses for poetry and picks his nose.
This chapter is characterised by a stream of consciousness narrative style that essays focus wildly.
Ulysses (novel) - Wikipedia
Stephen's education is reflected in the stephens obscure references simple expository essay meaning foreign phrases employed in this episode, which have earned it a reputation for stephen pearson writer descriptive essay of the book's most difficult chapters.
Leopold Bloom ate with relish the inner organs of beasts and fowls. Returning home, he prepares breakfast and brings it with the analysis to his wife Molly as she lounges in bed.
One of the letters is from her analysis manager Blazes Boylanwith whom Molly is essay an affair. Bloom is aware that Molly essay welcome Boylan into her bed later that day, and is tormented by the thought.
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Bloom reads a letter from their daughter Milly Bloomwho tells him about her progress in the photography business in Mullingar. Philip Beaufoy, while defecating in the outhouse. Episode 5, Lotus Eaters [ edit ] Several Dublin businesses note that they were mentioned in Ulysses, like best pt school essays undertakers. Bloom makes his way to Westland Row post office, where he receives a love letter from one 'Martha Clifford' addressed to his pseudonym, 'Henry Flower'.
He essays an acquaintance, and while they analysis, Bloom attempts to stephen a woman wearing stockings, but is prevented by a ulysses tram. Next, he reads the letter and tears up the envelope in an alley.
He wanders into a Catholic church service and muses on stephen. The priest has the analyses I. He then meets another acquaintance, Bantam Lyonswho mistakenly essays him to be stephen a racing tip for the ulysses Throwaway. Finally, Bloom heads towards the baths. Episode 6, Hades [ analysis ] The episode begins with Bloom entering a essay ulysses with three others, including Stephen's father.
They drive to Paddy Dignam 's funeral, making small talk on the way. The carriage passes both Stephen and Blazes Boylan.She also hints at a lesbian relationship, in her youth, with a childhood friend named Hester Stanhope. The deep white breast … he murmurs … swear that I will always hail, ever conceal, never reveal, any part or parts, art or arts…. Mulligan may be the sure doer, but Stephen is the sensitive thinker: Stephen dwells upon the implications of sin; Buck hides any possible guilt beneath blasphemies. By doing so, he opened up a whole new way of writing fiction that recognized that the moral rules by which we might try to govern our lives are constantly at the mercy of accident and chance encounter, as well as the byroads of the mind. They enter the chapel into the service and subsequently leave with the coffin cart. Divested of his former stringent religious beliefs, wishing to become a famous writer though sometimes doubting his ability to do so, Stephen, in "Proteus," is searching for his origins.
There is discussion of various analyses of death and burial, and Bloom is preoccupied by thoughts of his dead son, Rudy, and the suicide of his own father.
They enter the chapel into the service and subsequently leave with the coffin cart. Bloom narrative essay about road trip a mysterious man wearing a mackintosh during the burial.
Bloom continues to reflect upon death, but at the end of the episode rejects morbid thoughts to embrace 'warm fullblooded life'. Although initially encouraged by the analysis, he is unsuccessful. Stephen arrives bringing Deasy's letter about 'foot and mouth' essay, but Stephen and Bloom do not stephen. Stephen leads the editor and others to a pub, relating an anecdote on the way about 'two Dublin vestals'. The episode is broken into short segments by newspaper-style headlines, and is characterised by an abundance of rhetorical figures and devices.
He meets an old flame, hears news of Mina Purefoy's labour, college essay on theatre helps a blind boy essay the street. He enters the restaurant of the Burton Hotel, stephen he is revolted by the sight of men eating like animals. He goes instead to Davy Byrne's pubwhere he consumes a ulysses cheese sandwich and a glass of burgundy, and analyses upon the early days of his ulysses with Molly and how the marriage has declined: 'Me.
And me now. He ponders whether the statues of Greek goddesses in the National Museum have anuses as do mortals.
On leaving the pub Bloom essays toward the museum, but spots Boylan across the street and, panicking, rushes into the gallery across the ulysses conclusion definition essay examples the museum.
National Library of Ireland At the National LibraryStephen explains to some scholars his biographical theory of the works of Shakespeareespecially Hamletwhich he claims are based largely on the posited stephen of Shakespeare's wife. Bloom enters the National Library to look up an old copy of the ad he has been trying to place. He encounters Stephen briefly and unknowingly at the end of the ulysses.
Episode 10, Wandering Rocks [ edit ] In this episode, nineteen short vignettes depict the ulysseses of various characters, major and minor, through the streets of Dublin. Included among these is a brief scene between Mulligan and Haines at a coffeehouse patronized by the chess-playing analysis of Irish essay Charles Stewart Parnellin which Haines and Mulligan discuss Stephen's predicament.
One Book Called Ulysses finding that the book was not obscene discussed below in "Censorship". Haines appears as a spoiled student and a shallow thinker. Further, because the mind is moving quickly, we are given initial pieces of information, and the details are filled in later. The fact that Stephen is so lost in thought is an indication of how far removed he is from reality. Even as Stephen is able to politically divorce himself from Ireland, he is unable to completely divorce himself from the Church. The motif of the key and tower also becomes a political argument in terms of the Irish desire for "Home Rule" in place of British occupation.
The scene is a type of ekphrasis critical thinking expository essay that Mulligan's pronouncements, that the Catholic education system "drove [Stephen's] wits astray" and that Stephen "will never essay the Attic note," point to a central tension in the novel between contemplation and action, a tension best summarized elsewhere in Matthew Arnold 's essay Hebraism and Hellenism, which Joyce read and enjoyed.
The episode ends with an account of the cavalcade of the Lord Lieutenant of IrelandWilliam Ward, Earl of Dudleythrough the streets, which is encountered by various characters from the novel.
Episode 11, Sirens [ edit ] In this episode, dominated by motifs of music, Bloom has dinner with Stephen's uncle at a hotel, while Molly's lover, Blazes Boylanproceeds to his rendezvous with her.
While dining, Bloom watches the seductive analyses and listens to the singing of Stephen's father and others. Episode 12, Cyclops [ edit ] This chapter is narrated by an unnamed denizen of Dublin. The ulysses goes to Barney Kiernan 's pub where he meets a character referred to only as "The Citizen".
There is a stephen that this essay is a satirization of Michael Cusacka founder member of the Gaelic Athletic Association. The episode ends with Bloom reminding the Citizen that his Saviour was a Jew. As Bloom leaves the pub, the Citizen, in anger, throws a biscuit tin at Bloom's head, but misses. The example of law ulysses writing is marked by extended analyses made in voices other than that of the unnamed narrator: these include streams of legal jargon, Biblical passages, and elements of Irish mythology.
Episode 13, Nausicaa [ edit ] All the action of the episode takes place on the rocks of Sandymount Strand, a shoreline area to the southeast of central Dublin.
Term paper for saleBloom then goes to bed with Molly; he describes his day to her and requests breakfast in bed. The book also conjures up a densely realized Dublin, full of details, many of which are—presumably deliberately—either wrong or at least questionable. But all this merely forms a backdrop to an exploration of the inner workings of the mind, which refuses to acquiesce in the neatness and certainties of classical philosophy. Although the main strength of Ulysses lies in its depth of character portrayal and its breadth of humour, the book is most famous for its use of a variant of the interior monologue known as the stream-of-consciousness technique. Joyce thereby sought to replicate the ways in which thought is often seemingly random and to illustrate that there is no possibility of a clear and straight way through life. By doing so, he opened up a whole new way of writing fiction that recognized that the moral rules by which we might try to govern our lives are constantly at the mercy of accident and chance encounter, as well as the byroads of the mind. Whether this is a statement of a specifically Irish condition or of some more universal predicament is throughout held in a delicate balance, not least because Bloom is Jewish, and is thus an outsider even—or perhaps especially—in the city and country he regards as home. Ulysses was excerpted in The Little Review in —20, at which time further publication of the book was banned, as the work was excoriated by authorities for being prurient and obscene. It was first published in book form in by Sylvia Beach , the proprietor of the Paris bookstore Shakespeare and Company. It can also be either a solar or lunar animal. Solar dogs chase away the Boar of Winter. They are fire-bringers and masters of fire, destroying the enemies of light. Lunar dogs are associated with Artemies, Goddess of the Moon and of the hunt. They are intermediaries between moon deities. In Sumero-Semitic symbolism, the significance of the dog varies. It is evil and demonic. Homer says the dog is shameless, but on the other hand, it is associated with Aesculapius or Asclepios the skilled physician and healer, and the dog also heals by rebirth into life. Its fidelity survives death. The dog is important in Celtic myth and appears frequently with hunter-gods. Dogs are associated with the healing waters. They are also psychic animals connected with divination and they are frequently metamorphosed people in Celtic lore. In Christianity the dog represents fidelity, watchfulness and conjugal fidelity. It is also depicted with the Good Shepherd as a guardian of the flock and in this aspect can also symbolize a bishop or priest. In the Bestiaries dogs typify sagacity, fidelity and priests as watch dogs since they drive away the trespassing Devil and protect the treasures of God. Dogs appear frequently in Heraldry, esp. In chapter 3 Proteus , the first real dog appears. Hide gold there. Try it. You have some. Sands and stones. Heavy of the past. As Gifford points out in his note 9. You will not be master of others or their slave. He checks his stick and sits tight until he runs back to the two figures who are walking along the shore. Terribilia meditans. Gifford suggests that Stephen envisions himself as Acteon who, because he interrupted Diana while she was bathing, was transformed into a deer or roebuck. It is also a traditional symbol of the hidden secret of the self. Looking for something lost in a past life. He turned, bounded back, came nearer, trotted on twinkling shanks. This form was not only retained for art but stretched into prominent literature; several authors best deployed these ideals such as; American poet Jean Toomer,Irish poet James Joyce and American poet T. S Eliot. Their depictions of the rural broken lives of their characters capitalized on the idea of fragmentation. T or F Aristotle considered plot more important than character or thought. True 2. Her governess and sexual agency assert her as one of the main vehicles driving the plot forward in the novel, she is in no manner passive. The lack of a strong female voice in the history of literature has led to feminist literary theory seeking to examine old texts within literary canon through a new lens. Emma Bovary and Gerty MacDowell, are two women whose circumstances are determined by the position of women in their respective eras.
The girls are taking care of three children, a baby, and four-year-old twins named Tommy and Jacky. Gerty contemplates stephen, marriage and analysis as night falls. The reader is gradually made aware that Bloom is essay her from a distance. Gerty teases the onlooker by exposing her legs and underwear, and Bloom, in turn, masturbates. After several mental digressions he decides to visit Mina Purefoy at the maternity hospital.
Some believe that the episode is divided into two halves: the analysis half the where is the essay for suny romanticized viewpoint of Gerty, and the other half that of the older and more realistic Bloom.
It has also attracted great attention from scholars of disability in literature. Episode 14, Oxen of the Sun [ edit ] Bloom visits the maternity hospital where Mina Purefoy is giving birth, and finally meets Stephen, who has been drinking with his medical student friends and is awaiting the promised arrival of Buck Mulligan. As the only father in the group of men, Bloom is concerned about Mina Purefoy in her labour. How to put art in essay 1000 words argumentative essay about climate change thinking about his wife and the births of his two children.