They transform litter into proteins and carbohydrateenriched detritus particles ready for digestion by faunal groups . These detrivores animals eating detritus are small animals Figure 1 comprising of amphipods, bivalves, crabs, copepods, grass shrimps, insect larvae, mysids, nematodes, etc. Some minnows and small game fishes eat these animals. Thus the detritus food chain continues. Stress Structures Mangrove vegetation faces a peculiar environment that prevails in the tidal zones.
They usually grow on yellowish brown to grey soil comprising of sandy to silty clay with rich humus content. This soil is oxygen deficient and with less nitrogen content. In these swamps, the soil is water logged throughout the year. Although the soil contains adequate water, yet plants cannot avail this water because of its high salt concentration, up to 90 per cent mostly sodium chloride, magnesium chloride and magnesium sulphate. This is a physically wet but physiologically dry type of soil.
Soil ph ranges from 5. The root system of mangrove plants is modified to facilitate anchorage against the force of tidal action as well as for gaseous exchange. Ways of Taming the Odds Proper stress management is the only survival strategy of mangrove plants facing extreme environmental conditions.
To cope with the situation, they have adapted themselves in various unprecedented ways . By their subterranean tap root system, mangroves can grip the soil and try to collect capillary water. In some cases, corky stilt roots Figure 2 develop that support the plant in tidal currents. Other type of roots are profusely branched, negatively geotropic and usually come out of the mud surface to access atmospheric oxygen.
These roots are called pneumato- Figure 2. Supporting stilt roots ofyoung a Bruguiera and b Rhizophora plants. Such roots of mangrove even resist tsunami. Breathing roots or pneumatophores a during high tide and b on dry exposed surfaces. Figure 4 left. Salt secretion from leaf is a common phenomenon of certain mangrove plants.
Figure 5 right. A blooming red mangrove rhizophora plant in the Sunderban forest. Exposed surface of pneumatophores is provided with numerous pneumathodes or breathing pores for gaseous exchange. Pneumatophores contain large air spaces and aerenchyma tissue.
This tissue acts as a reservoir of air during the submersion of roots in high tide. Some mangroves spread out cable-like shallow holding roots with special knee-like appearance. Trunks of the arboreal predominantly woody species are stout, covered with thick bark and usually develop succulence for water storage. Shrubby or buttonwood mangroves are also with comparatively thick bark. The wood and bark of a mangrove tree contain a higher amount of tannins to overcome the surrounding salinity.
Leaves are small sized, thick, glazy, leathery and usually succulent. Besides, veritable salt glands Figure 4 in the leaves are capable of excreting the salt that has penetrated into the tissues.
In some genera such as Aegiceras, Sonneratia, etc. Flowering Figure 5 occurs in different seasons of the year, depending on the species. However, most of the mangroves bear insect pollinated flowers. Fruits and seeds are generally light in weight. Fruit walls are spongy having a number of air chambers to float on water. Most mangroves are viviparous. Their seeds germinate within the fruit while it is still on the tree. This adaptation helps the propagules a massive club-shaped hypocotyl and terminal radicle pointing 50 RESONANCE January 5 downward emerge out of the fruit that generally get dispersed by the sea currents.
They quickly get fixed in the silt along the coastline Figure 6. However, propagules can survive long periods in the sea. Soon the propagule begins to float vertically and sprouts its first leaf and roots. When it touches the soil, it grows more roots, and produces more leaves. Young seedlings can survive being completely submerged until they are big enough to grow aerial roots in about 1 or 2 years . Distribution and Indian Perspective Mangroves occur in almost all the continents of the world except Europe and Antarctica.
They are associated with large tropical deltas of the Amazon, Ganges, Mekong, Niger and Orinoco rivers. Virtually all mangroves can be found at low latitudes, where the environment is warm and humid.
Figure 6. There are three major types of coastal settings on which mangroves in India survive. These are deltaic, backwater-estuarine and insular categories. The deltaic mangroves occur on the deltas made by mighty rivers such as Ganges, Brahmaputra, Mahanadi, Krishna, Godavari and Cauvery along the east coast.
The backwater-estuarine type of mangroves that exist in the west coast are characterized by typical funnel-shaped estuaries of rivers Indus, Narmada, Tapti with delta formation almost absent or backwaters, creeks, and neritic inlets.
The insular mangroves are present in the Bay Islands such as Andaman and Nicobar Islands, where many tidal estuaries, small rivers, neritic islets, and lagoons support a mangrove flora . India has about square km area under mangrove vegetation.
About 60 per cent of this forest is found along the east coast Bay of Bengal , 25 per cent occurs on the west coast Arabian Sea and 15 per cent is found on the Bay Islands Andaman and Nicobar Islands .
The mangroves are widespread on the east coast of Mangrovesare mostly restricted to tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Sunderbansis the first mangrove forest to be declared as a Natural World Heritage Site. India due to the nutrient-rich alluvial soil formed by various rivers and a perennial supply of fresh water along the deltaic coast. Deltas with alluvial deposits are almost absent on the west coast. Their place is taken by the funnel-shaped estuaries or backwaters and creeks.
Moreover, the east coast has a smooth and gradual slope that provides larger area for colonization by mangroves, whereas the west coast has a steep and vertical slope .
In our country mangrove forests are found in nine States and three Union Territories. Sunderban is the largest mangrove forest Figure 7 in the world. The region is covered solely by quaternary sediments carried and deposited by the rivers Ganges, Matla and Bidyadhari. The forest is shared by both India and Bangladesh. The total area of the Sunderban landmass is about 10, square km . Mangrove vegetation of Indian Sunderban comprises an area of square km, the next largest being in Kutch with an area of square km, followed by Andaman and Nicobar Islands with an area of square km .
The Sunderban enjoys the distinction of being the first mangrove forest to be declared as the Natural World Heritage site for its extraordinary ecosystems. Indian Mangrove Biota Indian mangrove ecosystems constitute a large number of floral and faunal wealth. Floral elements such as true mangroves, associated plant species, sea grasses, sea weeds, algae, phytoplanktons, lichens, fungi, actinomycetes and bacteria are present with high specific as well as genetic diversities.
Out of a total species of true mangrove plants see also Box 1 recorded, 71 are reported to be present in India . A large array of mangrove plants ranging from high salt-tolerant concentration above 30 per cent species like Avicennia alba, A. Sundari Heritiera minor tree is now a rare sight in Sunderban.
Figure B. Keora or Mangrove Apple Sonneratia caseolaris trees in the Sunderban estuary. The faunal components in mangrove ecosystems comprise of terrestrial, estuarine or marine groups. They are adapted to the stressful situation of widely fluctuating environmental parameters .
The majority of mangrove fauna is composed of invertebrates see also Box 2 including sessile forms porifers and cnidarians , wandering forms arachnids, crustaceans and insects , burrowing forms polychaetes, bryozoans, brachyuran crabs, wood boring moluscs and burrowing bivalves and errant epi-faunal forms barnacles, molluscs and oysters.
They are supported by a large number of meio- and microfauna. Mangroves are nursery grounds for many commercially important fish species such as Ambassis commersoni, A.
Fishes also spend their lives restricted to the mangrove habitat because they find both food and shelter here. Certain amphibious mud-skipper fishes such as Apocryptes bato, Brachygobius nanus, Boleophthalmus dussumieri, Periopthalmus koelreuteri, P.
A large number of cartilaginous fishes like whale shark, tiger shark, hammer-headed shark, sting ray, saw fish, guitar fish, etc. Amphibian diversity is comparatively low in this ecosystem. Among amphibians, frog species such as such as Rana cyanophlyctis, R. Reptiles found in mangroves include the estuarine crocodile Crocodylus porosus , dog-faced water snake Cerberus rhynchops , chittul Hydrophis cyanocinctus , valakadiyan sea snake Enhydrina schistosa , python Python molurus , etc.
Also agamid Calotes versicolor , water monitor lizard Varanus salvator and V. Mangrove forests are ideal sanctuaries for avifauna. They use mangroves as roosting, breeding and feeding sites. Birds found in these ecosystems include little cormorant Phalacrocorax niger , grey heron Ardea cinerea , egrets such as Egretta alba, E. Figure 8. The Royal Bengal tiger Panthera tigris tigris is the flagship species of the Sunderban mangrove forest. Mammals are represented by flying foxes, Cynopterus sphinx, Pteropus, giganteus, P.
For English, we achieve the F1 score of We employ a large feature set to 1 encode similarities among semantic units words and named entities in context, and 2 address cooperation and competition for alignment among units in the same snippet.
We argue that 1 the quality of a model's posterior distribution an and should be directly evaluated, as to whether probabilities correspond to empirical frequencies; and 2 NLP uncertainty can be projected not only to pipeline components, but also to exploratory data analysis, telling a user when to, and not to, trust the NLP analysis.
Moreover, we extend the n-gram convolution to non-consecutive words to recognize patterns with intervening words. However, inference is cumbersome for LDA models with prior knowledge. Our new model jointly predicts different aspects of the structure by combining the different subtask predictions in the edge weights of an evidence graph; we then apply a standard MST decoding algorithm.
Kanai Dutt is an urbane Delhi businessman who spent part of his childhood in the Sundarbans. Smith Authoring a scientific paper is a complex process involving many decisions. Such models have been shown to produce results superior to taking the majority vote as the ground truth. Combinatorial therapy for triple negative breast cancer using hyperstar polymer-based nanoparticles. A key challenge introduced by the recent SpaceEval shared task on spatial relation extraction is the identification of MOVELINKs, a type of spatial relation in which up to eight spatial elements can participate.
Chakraborty "An accurate hierarchical electromagnetic-circuit technique for statistical analysis of RF circuits", Proc. They are constructed in a simple manner while capturing multiple alignments and empty words. Jael Topek Videographer Jael specializes in all aspects of video production with a special love for animation and design. In this paper, we propose two heterogeneous gated recursive neural networks: Our third approach, called Praline, uses MLNs to align lexical elements as well as define and control how inference should be performed in this task.
To define Dipanjan in a single word is next to impossible. He is a researcher, popular science writer, photographer, traveller, a radio-talker, a science communicator, and an editor as well, apart from his professional life as a teacher. Dipanjan has 6 jobs listed on their profile. Directed assembly of dielectric and paramagnetic nanoparticles can be used to synthesize diverse functional materials that polarize in response to an externally applied electric or magnetic field.
.For instance, increasing salinity of water and soil as well as the daily duration of submersion cause mortality of mangrove plants. Our new model jointly predicts different aspects of the structure by combining the different subtask predictions in the edge weights of an evidence graph; we then apply a standard MST decoding algorithm. Some fishes including sharks and gobid fish mud skipper are endangered. The astringent properties of Ceriops decandra and Xylocarpus granatum bark are commonly used in dermatology. Our algorithm builds upon the best known algorithm in literature for computing n-gram posteriors from lattices and leverages the following observations to significantly improve the time and space requirements: Previously, Maggie worked in grassroots advocacy and federal government affairs, as well as on political campaigns and in legislative offices.
Mangrove Efficacy The mangrove forest is a valuable resource throughout the tropics. The faunal components in mangrove ecosystems comprise of terrestrial, estuarine or marine groups. Leaves of Bruguiera cylindrica appear to have tumour-inhibiting property . Mangrove vegetation of Indian Sunderban comprises an area of square km, the next largest being in Kutch with an area of square km, followed by Andaman and Nicobar Islands with an area of square km . Figure 5 right. Studded with world-cupper studs like Buruchaga, Lazslo Kiss, Fischer, Mikhailichenko, Smolarek, Ramos - honored by a very respectful WC next to their names on DoorDarshan screens - those teams started to pummel our gods mercilessly.