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To see a side-by-side comparison of the three most widely used citation styles, including a chart of all APA citation guidelines, see the Citation Style Chart. You should use a clear font that is highly readable. APA recommends using 12 pt. Times New Roman font. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 33 5 , Remember that one goal of citations is to provide your readers with enough information to find the article; providing the journal home page aids readers in this process.
Title of Journal, volume number issue number if available. A Buddhist response to the nature of human rights. Journal of Buddhist Ethics, 8. However, the OWL still includes information about databases for those users who need database information.
When referencing a print article obtained from an online database such as a database in the library , provide appropriate print citation information formatted just like a "normal" print citation would be for that type of work. By providing this information, you allow people to retrieve the print version if they do not have access to the database from which you retrieved the article.
You can also include the item number or accession number or database URL at the end, but the APA manual says that this is not required. If you are citing a database article that is available in other places, such as a journal or magazine, include the homepage's URL. You may have to do a web search of the article's title, author, etc.
For articles that are easily located, do not provide database information. If the article is difficult to locate, then you can provide database information.
Only use retrieval dates if the source could change, such as Wikis. For more about citing articles retrieved from electronic databases, see pages of the Publication Manual. A study of enjoyment of peas. Journal of Abnormal Eating, 8 3 , However, if the full text is not available, you may use an abstract that is available through an abstracts database as a secondary source.
Paterson, P. How well do young offenders with Asperger Syndrome cope in custody? British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 36 1 , Hendricks, J. A world apart? Bridging the gap between theory and applied social gerontology. Gerontologist, 50 3 , Abstract retrieved from Abstracts in Social Gerontology database.
Accession No. Year, Month Day. Title of Newspaper. Psychiatry handbook linked to drug industry. The New York Times. Use the following format if the book you are using is only provided in a digital format or is difficult to find in print.
If the work is not directly available online or must be purchased, use "Available from," rather than "Retrieved from," and point readers to where they can find it. Thomas, H. University of Colorado, Boulder. Citing Web Pages In Text Cite web pages in text as you would any other source, using the author and date if known.
If the author is not known, use the title and the date as the in-text citation for long titles just use the first few words. Your in-text citation should lead your reader to the corresponding entry in the reference list.
For sources with no date use n. Below are examples of using in-text citation with web pages. When using APA format, follow the author, date method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, e. If you are referring to an idea from another work but not directly quoting the material, or making reference to an entire book, article or other work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication in your in-text reference.
Here are some examples of in-text citations: Short quotations If you are directly quoting from a work, include the author, year of publication, and the page number for the reference preceded by "p. Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author's last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses.
According to Jones , "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" p. Jones found "students often had difficulty using APA style" p. If the author is not named in a signal phrase, place the author's last name, the year of publication, and the page number in parentheses after the quotation. Long quotations Direct quotations longer than 40 words should be in a free-standing block of typewritten lines, and omit quotation marks.
Start the quotation on a new line, indented five spaces from the left margin. Type the entire quotation on the new margin, and indent the first line of any subsequent paragraph within the quotation five spaces from the new margin.
Maintain double-spacing throughout. The parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark.
For example: This suggests that familiarity with nonnative speech in general, although it is clearly not as important a variable as topic familiarity, may indeed have some effect. Harris et al. Reference entry All things Nittany. If you reference an article from Wikipedia, for example, you would want to include a retrieval date because information in a wiki can be subject to a lot of change. Only use retrieval dates if the source could change, such as Wikis.
Title of Journal, volume number issue number if available , page range. If DOIs are available, provide them at the end of the reference. A Buddhist response to the nature of human rights. Oral History 2 [Interview transcript]. References Derwing, T.