Child A is born in a hostile crime community in the townships where resources are scarce, while Child 2 is born in a leafy suburb area to an affluent couple. Clearly, the first child is going to grow up with different expectations than the child raised in an upper-class environment. As the child grows older, teaching practical skills and helping the child gain hands-on experience might become more important.
The flip side of the coin could be being shot down in gang violence or even attacked at school. Government or state-aided schools in all nine provinces of South Africa are dominated by disruptive school and classroom behaviours.
The legacies of Apartheid, combined with disruptive student behaviour as well as the daunting uncertainties about curriculum reform continue to impact negatively on educator performances and learner achievements. As the child grows older, the parents might shift their focus to making sure their child is enrolled in the most respected schools and attains the best possible grades.
This parent needs to be knowledgeable about the way the school operates and its ideology of education. This is done by visiting school-organized meetings, receiving gleaning impressions from their children, contextual clues from the work brought home and talking with other parents.
Studies on the effects of schooling show the constraint of social class background on achieving at school. However, classroom studies conducted within a Bernsteinian frame are also starting to demonstrate how schools can make a difference through modes of pedagogic practice that interrupt the reproduction of educational inequality and lead to the success of all students e. Morais, ; Rose, Gamble and Hoadley in Positioning the regulative support the significance of strong framing over the evaluative criteria.
However their information does not allow that only personal social relations between transmitters and acquirers make possible an entry of working class learners into the verticality of school knowledge. The aim is to question the possible inductive proficiency of positional modes of control. This leads us to comprehend why is it that personal and positional control relations that are derived from early socio-linguistic thesis have become the standard interpretation of hierarchy in the classroom even though there are other versions of the regulative at school level and curriculum as outlined in the pedagogic device.
The conceptualizing of the moral is Durkheimian and Bernstein draws particularly on Moral Education His concern is with the role of the school in giving learners an access to other lifestyles of social relationships. Regardless of the function of the family, the school is an independent force in defining the role of the pupil.
At school the child is exposed to rituals, assemblies, authority relations, stratification and procedures for learning. There are seven grades at our school and each one elaborated and dramatised on topics such as punctuality, bullying and pollution at various assemblies. Drama groups are invited to the school where they dramatise on topics such as The Read Family and the focus on books.
Therefore the consensual rituals under the expressive order facilitate learners to be detached from the family and attached to school ultimately towards verticality. Bernstein raises the challenge how people can live together in so-called knowledgeable societies, in which symbolic control and social production and reproduction are synonymous with power and control. It also demonstrates that power and control is differentially distributed between the transmitter and acquirer in the pursuit to create text that is contextually suitable.
With documents such as these in place, the potential is always there for the outcomes to become into standards against which pupils would be measured. The Grade 3 Literacy results improved from The results are used to measure the educators and schools performances and are published in the form of tables. At our school we engaged in a number of activities to improve our results. These included new teaching strategies based on the ANA and Language results.
In New Zealand this potential has been realised by a mixture of political furtiveness and governmental bullying. Curriculum levels were used to develop standards of achievement that were required to be reached at the end of the school year in reading and writing. These were introduced despite the educators complaining about too much assessments and not enough teaching time. In South Africa there are major interruptions due to the many public and school holidays.
Learners come back with unruly behaviour, disrupting the school programme and many are late due to extended holidays. The work that has been taught is somehow forgotten. Some schools are still refusing to co-operate due to too much red tape, crime, poverty and sickness.
There is no quick fix when it comes to improving quality education. The Western Cape Education Department is remaining positive since annual systemic language test results make allowances to evaluate the reasons for any decreases and to formulate new strategies to improve on the results. Schools are visited by District staff for a joint analysis of their results with the senior managers.
Each school is asked to submit improvement targets determined by principals in consultation with the relevant district office. Defining the Curriculum: To Bob Lingard an issue of importance to educators and researchers is the way education policies are shaping and developing the hegemony of standards in education policy discourse.
One of the most powerful elements of policy is the high-stakes assessment Lingard advocates that sociological attention be paid to the message systems of schooling which are the curriculum, pedagogies, and evaluation. In so doing focus the gaze of policy unremittingly on teachers is focussed on in a myopic, decontextualised way.
Fortunately her conscientious diligence forced early detection, and thereby complete removal of the disease. Over the past years of teaching I have taught several students whose medical conditions have challenged their learning, yet they persevered and completed my class.
I am very supportive of students who apply themselves, grading on the merit of their writing and not their challenges. As a result I think I earn the respect of my students. Writing is a response to either a text or an utterance, and so therefore it stands not alone, but rather in relationship to another form of communication. My belief is that student writing is empowered with this knowledge of a relationship of dialogue not mono-existence.
Being conscious of the intended reader for the text as well as the reader of the student writing is the starting place to formulate a written response. Second is awareness of the purpose of the text — what was that writer responding to and why is essential to formulating a written student response. Perhaps the most important component of writing is understanding the context of the text as well as the environment of the written response.
Today the media format is a critical frame within which the text is published. And lastly what is the rhetorical design of the text. What are the strategies employed by the author in structuring the text? Are logos, ethos, or pathos used, and how? Once the student writer has a grasp of these vital elements then they may begin the experience of creating a written response. Without truly comprehending most if not all of these components, the student writer will likely struggle to initiate a written response.
Contextual understanding of text with empirical knowledge will support the writing process. I believe that writing is a social practice, not simply a technical and neutral skill, although oftentimes employment requires the ability to record and communicate facts and observations without bias. Reading and writing are rooted in conceptions of knowledge, identity, and being, and therefore embedded in social practices.
Stanley Fish asserts that there is an assumption made of students that they have achieved some degree of proficiency in writing. My aim as an educator is equally democratic. A person learns how to become a good writer by understanding and imitating writing styles. His epistemological theory posits how one comes to know, excluding the author in the interplay. While New Criticism and New Historicists, like all theory is fundamental to deconstructing texts and re-constructing meaning, at time being both signifier and signified, most high school students and first year remedial students, and that is my student population, cannot afford the luxury of postulating theories; they are grappling with issues of survival, not existential ennui.
Explore Gaps: My teaching at several colleges affords me the privilege of working with a diverse group of students. Here are a few whose stories have touched me.
Tommy would read his essays before the class as I held his essay and occasionally helped him pronounce difficult words. His cerebral palsy and ADHD did not stop his efforts to be a student. Huong worked long hours in the library on her essays, more hours with tutors, and despite her developing language skills, cultural, and maturity, she proved that she could and did learn how to write an essay. Several students have enjoyed the rigorous reading and writing assignments that I include in my syllabi.
Recently I asked my students how their writing has changed. I ask my students to question the context of the essay, and what type of media is the writer using to communicate the idea. I think I am a bit of a New Historicists. The context and the texts are viable lenses through which I believe we can arrive at a state of truth. I have had excellent opportunities to teach a variety of writing courses during my undergraduate and graduate studies, including developmental writing, first-year writing for both native speakers and second language students, advanced placement secondary writing, and business writing.
The most satisfying experience for me has been working with students on an individual basis in my recent college courses: Adult Education, First Year Composition, and Transferable English. These curriculum development related activities strengthen my bond with administration and colleagues, as well as build a more solid foundation of pedagogical knowledge.
All that stated, I continually find gaps in my pedagogy and my attitude towards my teaching. What I strive for is often compromised by time and personal biases. I remember when I moved near my work, only to experience the deep felt animosity towards my wife and I because we are white privilege, or we appear to be white privilege.
My journey from some fifteen residences by the time I finished high school is like many of the students I teach; my experience with drugs and crime are also familiar to my students; and my testing into Basic Skills is like my students.
Now it feels as though I am accepted for my aspirations as well as my history, and the baggage I carry as a white person. I cannot change who I appear to be, but I can build bridges to help students like me, push through barriers and obstacles, and reach for that illusive ideal of what education creates. Then one day I can say with authority I know a path that will take us to a place of equity and compassion. Whether or not I can dissolve or eradicate the young boy trapped in his own reproduction is an expedition that is still unfolding.
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Genius: A mosaic of one hundred exemplary creative minds. New York: Warner Bullough, R. Pinnegar Guidelines for quality autobiographical forms of self- study research.
Educational Researcher 30 3 : Carnegie, D. Culturally responsive education: Recommendations for achieving Lau remedies II. Au Eds. Your silence will not protect you - A tribute to Audre Lorde. Teachers professional knowledge landscapes: Teacher stories-stories of teachers-school stories-stories of schools. Educational Researcher, 25 3 , Mind, Culture, and Activity. Volume 15, Issue 2, David copperfield. Writing with power: Techniques for mastering the writing process. Because language is deeply connected to the… Why I Do What I Do Essay Never forget why you do what you do and who you do it for, and make sure everything you do honors that.
Maria Montessori is the founder of the Montessori method of education. Montessori education celebrates its th year in As the title of the article suggests, what is more important where inclusive education is concerned? Along with this line were scenarios flashing back.
My elementary and high school teachers tagging along… Comparing Different Education Systems The performance of the education system is an issue that causes much controversy in society.
There is strong research to suggest that PCK is indeed a useful tool in contributing to our understanding of the complexities of teaching, and professional practices. Yes, I was certified to teach the full spectrum of English language arts—literature, grammar and usage, speech, drama, and so on—but my absolute favorite, the thing I loved doing the most, was teaching students how to write. Clearly, the first child is going to grow up with different expectations than the child raised in an upper-class environment. Is it through memorization?
A solid instructor is clear, concise and makes learning relevant. Self-authorship as the common goal of 21st century education. I made it clear that students had a lot of choice regarding both content and format. Everyone's an author with readings.