The main motive behind this trial was the crushing of labour upsurge in the country and in particular the impending general strike called by the Bombay textile workers.
In addition, the trial intended to deter the European working class movement from giving any help to the Indian counterpart. But what did the Government really gain from this scandalous trial? Firstly, the trial of Indians and British citizens on the same charge exemplified a living unity and international fraternity among the working classes. Secondly, the trial could be described as a platform for ideological propagation of Marxism.
In fact, the British propaganda against socialism boomeranged as an unprecedented interest grew up in the minds of the Indian working classes. Fourthly, the British Government expected faintest publicity of the Meerut Trial in view of the obscurity and security the town Meerut provided.
But this nerve-wrecking trial created a great furore in the international arena. Scornful protests were raised by such international celebrities as Albert Einstein, Romain Rolland, H. Wells, the Archbishop of York, and Harold Laski. Anyway, this period was marked by disunity and splits as well as imperial onslaughts. But, at the same time, Marxian ideology spread its wings on the labour front during this period. This left-awakening in this country stirred up foreign labour organisation and labour leaders of international stature to help the Indian labour movement.
This made more than a dozen registered trade unions illegal. The labour movement of the country went haywire. Its spirits were shattered. Its leaders were thrown into prisons. Its ranks and files were utterly divided. The Fourth Phase : The trade union movement in this country in the early s came at a low ebb when disunity and dissensions rose to a great height. Taking an advantage of this situation, employers launched a brutal offensive throughout the country against the working class organisations.
Imperialist government also spared no efforts to put a halt to the labour movement, particularly the communist infiltration on the Indian soil. Arrest and repression of national labour leaders made them realise the utter futility of disunity. And, consequently, efforts for restoration of unity in trade union movement were brought to the force. Thus the period was marked by unity movement and the sharpening of the trade union struggles. During this time the Congress Socialist Party was floated.
The final unification was achieved in April when certain conditions laid down by the Joshi group were accepted by the leaders of the AITUC. These two organisations thus combined together but with some identifiable entities. The full merger became a reality in when the NTUF dissolved itself. It claimed a membership of , Meanwhile, the Second World War broke out on 3rd September when some fresh opportunities for the movement to grow came up. The War saw a tremendous spurt in industrial activity as well as unprecedented rise in demand.
To compensate this loss, they demanded increase in wages and dearness allowance as well as sharing of profit through their labour organisations.
But the Government as well as the employers was too belligerent to consider these genuine economic demands of the workers sympathetically. The result was the formation of trade unions in all parts of the country, in all trades, and in all industries.
A series of general strikes swept over all the industrial towns of the country. Anyway, by , the number of registered trade unions rose to and their membership climbed to over 5 lakhs.
After , the working class union of India fractioned as the communist approach of trade union and corporatist approach. In , dock workers of Bombay now Mumbai and Calcutta now Kolkata refused to load ships taking supplies to the warring troops in Indonesia.
Above historical timeline reflects the clear picture that the trade union emerged to fight against exploitation without getting polarised on the basis of political ideologies.
Unions try to play down each other in a bid to gain greater influence on the workers. In the process, they do more harm than good to the cause of unionism as a whole. Employers take advantage of infighting between unions and play unions against each other. They can also refuse to bargain on the plea that there is no representative union.
Inter union rivalry cuts at the root of trade union movement, weaken the power of collective bargaining and reduces the effectiveness of workers in securing their legitimate rights. Problems of Recognition: Many a times, the employers refuse recognition to trade unions under the contention that unions consist of only a small number of workers or because of multiplicity of union.
Employers are under no obligation to give recognition to unions. Absence of Paid Office Bearers: Weak finances and political leadership do-not permit unions to engage the services of full time, paid office bearers. Union activists, who work on a part-time basis, neither have the time nor the energy to take up union activities sincerely and diligently.
Heterogeneous Nature of Labour: Workers join factories with varying backgrounds and therefore, it is difficult for them to put up a joint front in case of trouble. Employers exploit the situation, under the circumstances, by dividing workers on the basis of race, religion, language etc. Lack of Interest: In order to make the trade union movement succeed, the members of the trade unions should take keen interest in the union affairs.
But majority of workers do-not take interest in union activities. The attendance at the general meetings of unions is very poor. Under such circumstances, trade unionism cannot be expected to make much progress and outside political leaders exploit the situation to serve their own personal agenda.
Limited Stress on Welfare: Many unions in India undertake only limited welfare activities. They feel that their major activity is to fight with the employer for more wages and allowances. Moreover, paucity of funds also hamper the welfare activities of the unions. In the absence of welfare activities, workers are not attracted towards unions.
Lack of Public Support: The general public is adversely affected due to strikes, go slow policy and other practices of unions. As a result, public support or sympathy is not available to the unions.
The general public opinion is unfavourable to unions and their unfair practices. United Labour Front: Unions must put a joint front. A strong and united trade union movement is necessary to safeguard the interests of the members and to help in achieving the targets of production. If agreement can't be reached and the organisation employs more than 20 people, a union may apply for statutory recognition.
To do so, it must first request recognition from the employer in writing. If this is unsuccessful, the union can apply to the Industrial Court for a decision. Several important labour laws were passed during this time. Independence to Liberalisation [ edit ] Following its Independence in and the formation of the Republic in , India largely followed a Socialist economic approach encouraging public sector employment and pro-worker legislations. The trade-union movement reflected the main political divisions of the time and was divided mainly along Socialist and Communist lines.
The subsequent decades saw significant expansion in trade union membership with the number of active unions reaching its peak in the mids and mids. While the s in India was a period characterised by political instability, the s was characterised by the beginnings of a distinct turn towards more market-friendly policies, support for industrialists and an implicit opposition to workers.
The active association of Mahatma Gandhi with the Ahmedabad Textile Labour Association gave a new turn to the labour movement by applying the principle of non-violence. The Government nominated some delegates to the first conference of the International Labour Organisation ILO in Washington in without taking into account the then existing trade unions. Das etc. The main aim of this association was to facilitate the selection of delegates to ILO and also coordinating the functions of individual trade unions.
The ILO in adopted a resolution which emphasised that the labour should be given full freedom to form a union. The number of unions had grown to claiming a membership of 2.
In , the Trade Union Act was passed and a period of regulated trade unionism started. It was a central law which provided a legal status to the registered trade unions and conferred on them and their members a measure of immunity from civil suits and criminal prosecutions. This improved the image of trade unions in the public. The Act was proved a boon to the trade unionism in India. The existing trade unions were registered under the Act and tried to get them recognised.
Apart from it, several new unions came into being. In , there was another rift in the AITUC at the Calcutta session due to the fundamental differences between the communist and the left wing unionists. The communists led by B. Ranadive and S. Deshpande formed a new organisation named.Social functions 1. Intra-Mural Functions: General knowledge topics for essay writings functions are termed as militant functions too because unions may resort to strikes and other pressure tactics to get their demands implemented. Intramural functions include wage rises, proper working conditions, sanitation, safety, continuity in employment and so on. The unions try to resolve these issues through collective bargaining.
Government displayed its wisdom and ingenuity in curbing trade union activities. The Act defined the legal position of trade unions in definite and precise terms.
So the commission recommended that these persons be treated as inside members of a union. In alphabetical order. Similarly, a successful drive may also bring the management to terms. The Court declared the trade union activity as an illegal conspiracy. To do so, it must first request recognition from the employer in writing.
Wadia—a political man as well as an associate of Annie Besant—was brought into the labour front to carry the political movement to the factories, particularly European-managed factories like Buckingham and Karnatic Mills. Industrial Unions are organized on the basis of industry, for example, if the workers of a cotton textile factory decide to form a union of workers of different crafts, the union will be called an industrial union.
In , when socialist group broke away from the congress in and formed a new political party i.
This resulted in a wide influence of unions and workers' organisations and led to significantly favourable social legislation being enacted in the first decade of Independence. Bengalee prepared a bill on child labour and sent it to the Governor of Bombay for consideration in
It has affiliations in railways, cotton textile, coal mining, engineering industries, etc. History[ edit ] The setting up of textile and clothing mills around the port cities of Bombay now Mumbai , Calcutta now Kolkata , Madras now Chennai and Surat in the second half of the 19th century led to the beginnings of the industrial workforce in India. They focused attention of the public to the necessity of improving the working conditions in the factories and laid foundations for the establishment of trade unions, which came into existence after the First World War.
Even then, one must not lose sight of the fact that the working class was gaining in solidarity. He called upon the unions under its influence to disaffiliate themselves from the AITUC and join the new organisation opposed to the communist ideology. Joshi seceded from the parent body and formed a new organisation—the All India Trade Union Federation. They have succeeded in organising Central Union Federations which help in the determination of principles, philosophy, ideology and purposes of the unions and give some sense of direction to the otherwise scattered and isolated unions.
In the words of S. In alphabetical order. It creates organisation for their self-protection, safeguarding of their common interest and betterment of their social and economic position. This research article mainly focuses on the roles and objectives of Trade Union in India. Strike directly suspends production, cuts the creation of profit, cut off the employer from the market, may lose the source of materials and fixed charges such as interest, taxes and salaries for officials continue to be incurred during the strike period.