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Write an essay on the rise and development of the trade union movement in india

  • 26.04.2019

The main motive behind this trial was the crushing of labour upsurge in the country and in particular the impending general strike called by the Bombay textile workers.

In addition, the trial intended to deter the European working class movement from giving any help to the Indian counterpart. But what did the Government really gain from this scandalous trial? Firstly, the trial of Indians and British citizens on the same charge exemplified a living unity and international fraternity among the working classes. Secondly, the trial could be described as a platform for ideological propagation of Marxism.

In fact, the British propaganda against socialism boomeranged as an unprecedented interest grew up in the minds of the Indian working classes. Fourthly, the British Government expected faintest publicity of the Meerut Trial in view of the obscurity and security the town Meerut provided.

But this nerve-wrecking trial created a great furore in the international arena. Scornful protests were raised by such international celebrities as Albert Einstein, Romain Rolland, H. Wells, the Archbishop of York, and Harold Laski. Anyway, this period was marked by disunity and splits as well as imperial onslaughts. But, at the same time, Marxian ideology spread its wings on the labour front during this period. This left-awakening in this country stirred up foreign labour organisation and labour leaders of international stature to help the Indian labour movement.

This made more than a dozen registered trade unions illegal. The labour movement of the country went haywire. Its spirits were shattered. Its leaders were thrown into prisons. Its ranks and files were utterly divided. The Fourth Phase : The trade union movement in this country in the early s came at a low ebb when disunity and dissensions rose to a great height. Taking an advantage of this situation, employers launched a brutal offensive throughout the country against the working class organisations.

Imperialist government also spared no efforts to put a halt to the labour movement, particularly the communist infiltration on the Indian soil. Arrest and repression of national labour leaders made them realise the utter futility of disunity. And, consequently, efforts for restoration of unity in trade union movement were brought to the force. Thus the period was marked by unity movement and the sharpening of the trade union struggles. During this time the Congress Socialist Party was floated.

The final unification was achieved in April when certain conditions laid down by the Joshi group were accepted by the leaders of the AITUC. These two organisations thus combined together but with some identifiable entities. The full merger became a reality in when the NTUF dissolved itself. It claimed a membership of , Meanwhile, the Second World War broke out on 3rd September when some fresh opportunities for the movement to grow came up. The War saw a tremendous spurt in industrial activity as well as unprecedented rise in demand.

To compensate this loss, they demanded increase in wages and dearness allowance as well as sharing of profit through their labour organisations.

But the Government as well as the employers was too belligerent to consider these genuine economic demands of the workers sympathetically. The result was the formation of trade unions in all parts of the country, in all trades, and in all industries.

A series of general strikes swept over all the industrial towns of the country. Anyway, by , the number of registered trade unions rose to and their membership climbed to over 5 lakhs.

After , the working class union of India fractioned as the communist approach of trade union and corporatist approach. In , dock workers of Bombay now Mumbai and Calcutta now Kolkata refused to load ships taking supplies to the warring troops in Indonesia.

Above historical timeline reflects the clear picture that the trade union emerged to fight against exploitation without getting polarised on the basis of political ideologies.

Unions try to play down each other in a bid to gain greater influence on the workers. In the process, they do more harm than good to the cause of unionism as a whole. Employers take advantage of infighting between unions and play unions against each other. They can also refuse to bargain on the plea that there is no representative union.

Inter union rivalry cuts at the root of trade union movement, weaken the power of collective bargaining and reduces the effectiveness of workers in securing their legitimate rights. Problems of Recognition: Many a times, the employers refuse recognition to trade unions under the contention that unions consist of only a small number of workers or because of multiplicity of union.

Employers are under no obligation to give recognition to unions. Absence of Paid Office Bearers: Weak finances and political leadership do-not permit unions to engage the services of full time, paid office bearers. Union activists, who work on a part-time basis, neither have the time nor the energy to take up union activities sincerely and diligently.

Heterogeneous Nature of Labour: Workers join factories with varying backgrounds and therefore, it is difficult for them to put up a joint front in case of trouble. Employers exploit the situation, under the circumstances, by dividing workers on the basis of race, religion, language etc. Lack of Interest: In order to make the trade union movement succeed, the members of the trade unions should take keen interest in the union affairs.

But majority of workers do-not take interest in union activities. The attendance at the general meetings of unions is very poor. Under such circumstances, trade unionism cannot be expected to make much progress and outside political leaders exploit the situation to serve their own personal agenda.

Limited Stress on Welfare: Many unions in India undertake only limited welfare activities. They feel that their major activity is to fight with the employer for more wages and allowances. Moreover, paucity of funds also hamper the welfare activities of the unions. In the absence of welfare activities, workers are not attracted towards unions.

Lack of Public Support: The general public is adversely affected due to strikes, go slow policy and other practices of unions. As a result, public support or sympathy is not available to the unions.

The general public opinion is unfavourable to unions and their unfair practices. United Labour Front: Unions must put a joint front. A strong and united trade union movement is necessary to safeguard the interests of the members and to help in achieving the targets of production. If agreement can't be reached and the organisation employs more than 20 people, a union may apply for statutory recognition.

To do so, it must first request recognition from the employer in writing. If this is unsuccessful, the union can apply to the Industrial Court for a decision. Several important labour laws were passed during this time. Independence to Liberalisation [ edit ] Following its Independence in and the formation of the Republic in , India largely followed a Socialist economic approach encouraging public sector employment and pro-worker legislations. The trade-union movement reflected the main political divisions of the time and was divided mainly along Socialist and Communist lines.

The subsequent decades saw significant expansion in trade union membership with the number of active unions reaching its peak in the mids and mids. While the s in India was a period characterised by political instability, the s was characterised by the beginnings of a distinct turn towards more market-friendly policies, support for industrialists and an implicit opposition to workers.

The active association of Mahatma Gandhi with the Ahmedabad Textile Labour Association gave a new turn to the labour movement by applying the principle of non-violence. The Government nominated some delegates to the first conference of the International Labour Organisation ILO in Washington in without taking into account the then existing trade unions. Das etc. The main aim of this association was to facilitate the selection of delegates to ILO and also coordinating the functions of individual trade unions.

The ILO in adopted a resolution which emphasised that the labour should be given full freedom to form a union. The number of unions had grown to claiming a membership of 2.

In , the Trade Union Act was passed and a period of regulated trade unionism started. It was a central law which provided a legal status to the registered trade unions and conferred on them and their members a measure of immunity from civil suits and criminal prosecutions. This improved the image of trade unions in the public. The Act was proved a boon to the trade unionism in India. The existing trade unions were registered under the Act and tried to get them recognised.

Apart from it, several new unions came into being. In , there was another rift in the AITUC at the Calcutta session due to the fundamental differences between the communist and the left wing unionists. The communists led by B. Ranadive and S. Deshpande formed a new organisation named.

Social functions 1. Intra-Mural Functions: General knowledge topics for essay writings functions are termed as militant functions too because unions may resort to strikes and other pressure tactics to get their demands implemented. Intramural functions include wage rises, proper working conditions, sanitation, safety, continuity in employment and so on. The unions try to resolve these issues through collective bargaining.
Another concomitant feature of the post-war period was the industrial unrest following hard economic conditions. Fourthly, the British Government expected faintest publicity of the Meerut Trial in view of the obscurity and security the town Meerut provided. Financial Stability: The financial problems of the unions can be solved by raising the membership and collecting for fees from all the members, the membership fees should be raised as the amount of the wages of the workers increased significantly compared to the situation in when Trade Union Act provided for the collection of 25 paisa per month per member as subscription fees. But majority of workers do-not take interest in union activities. Two key events during this period were the railway strike in India and the Great Bombay textile strike of , the latter of which subsequently led to a long and complicated statemate. Due to various reasons such as affiliation to a political party etc. It has been estimated that there existed unions with a total membership of 25,

By Vipinsharma Views Trade Unionism had made its headway owing to growth of industrialization and capitalism. The Indian trade union movement is now over fifty years old. It has passed through several stages in its career. Periods of frustration and bitter struggle have alternated with occasions of recognition, consolidation, and achievements.
So the commission recommended that these persons be treated as inside members of a union. Bengalee prepared a bill on child labour and sent it to the Governor of Bombay for consideration in The split in political parties was followed by a split in the trade union it was dominating. They, therefore, took no interested in unionism.

Assessment First Critical : The history of the trade union movement in India can be traced back to the days of the rise of analysis factory industry which, at the same time, brought to the fore the problems of modern capitalism. Notable problems among them were miserable working conditions, recruitment of women and child labour, long and excessive working hours, and so on. All these resulted in agitations, protests and strikes in and industries. However, these did not make any perceptible impact on the status of the fact that the workers were thinking united or organised and were ignorant about the conception of the trade union movement.
Write an essay on the rise and development of the trade union movement in india
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History[ edit ] The setting up of textile and clothing mills around the port cities of Bombay now MumbaiCalcutta now KolkataMadras now Chennai and Surat in the second half of the klavs bondebjerg essay writer century led to the beginnings of the industrial workforce in India. Several incidents of strikes and protests by workers have been recorded during this time. The credit for the first association of Indian workers is generally given to the Bombay Mill-Hands Association founded by N. Lokhande in Labour movement is a wider term and it includes trade union movement Labour movement implies, in some degrees, a community of outlook. It is an organisation or rather many forms of organisations based upon the sense of a common status and common need of mutual help. It seeks to develop among workers a spirit of combination, class-consciousness and solidarity of interest and arouses a consciousness, for self-respect, rights and duties. It creates organisation for their self-protection, safeguarding of their common interest and betterment of their social and economic position.

Central Government handles all unions which are not confined to one state. However, the ideologies of these two sections were palpably at variance and the marriage between the communists and ultra-nationalists ultimately broke up in in the Calcutta session of the AITUC. However, this period was marked by sporadic small strikes to ventilate grievances of workers. While the s in India was a period characterised by political instability, the s was characterised by the beginnings of a distinct turn towards more market-friendly policies, support for industrialists and an implicit opposition to workers.
Write an essay on the rise and development of the trade union movement in india
It claimed a membership of , Another important working-class action was the big strike called by the workers of the East Indian Railway in July-September Trade unions Act encourages a small sector of workers to form separate unions. Trade unions also help in better industrial relation by creating procedure to resolve the industrial dispute. The post-war economic condition spelt disaster to the working classes since the problems of retrenchment and rising prices assumed a gigantic proportion. Many a time, it is contended that multiplicity of unions is because of outside leaders, but more pertinent point is that they are able to work because law permits and gives sanctity to the small unions.

The degree of unionism varies a lot from industry to industry, thus touching only a portion of the working class in India. It has also a base in post and telegraph department of central government. Indian trade unions have now recognized by law and given legal status and becomes the permanent attribute industrial society influencing policy making and decision of employers by virtue of negotiation over interests between workman and employer. Low Membership: Most of the unions have low membership. On the contrary, a number of labour unions with communist leanings sprang up.
Write an essay on the rise and development of the trade union movement in india
Drinking water, minimum working hours, paid holidays, social security, safety equipments, lights and others. Collective Bargaining is the foundation of the movement and it is in the interest of labour that statutory recognition has been accorded to Trade Union and their capacity to represent workmen. Financial Stability: The financial problems of the unions can be solved by raising the membership and collecting for fees from all the members, the membership fees should be raised as the amount of the wages of the workers increased significantly compared to the situation in when Trade Union Act provided for the collection of 25 paisa per month per member as subscription fees. Trade unions aim at promoting class peace and class collaboration in the background of existing social framework of the country. Often, the Court will organise a ballot among the affected workforce to decide whether recognition should be awarded. Industrial unions bring more workers within its fold than craft unions, as a result outsiders gave more attention to the formation of industrial unions.

Power to make regulations. In view of this development, V. Trade unions Introduction to trade unions Find out about trade unions, including what they are and the benefits of being a trade union member. Each group—now controlling a union, or a set of unions—followed and implemented its own strategies and policies. History of the working class movement in British India The development of Railways, coal, cotton and jute and in the second half write the nineteenth the witnesses the entry of modern Industry as well trade modern Indian working class. By Shakeel Anwar Feb 8, IST History of the working class movement in British India The development of Railways, coal, cotton and jute industries in the second half of the nineteenth century witnesses the entry of india Industry as well as modern Indian working class. But over the time, Indian development class faced movement mode of exploitation that was faced by European working class during the industrialization such as low wages, long working hours, unhygienic and essay writing helpful phrases for evaluations working conditions, child labour and rise of basic amenities. The Term paper writing service working class movement gave different colour due to the presence of essay in India because of imperialist political regime and economic exploitation by both union and native capitalist classes.

Trade unions Introduction to trade unions Find out about trade unions, including what they are and the benefits of being a get your homeowrk done online union member. What a trade union is A trade union is an organisation made up of members a membership-based organisation and its membership must be made up mainly of workers. One of a trade union's main aims is to protect and advance the interests of its members in the workplace. Most trade unions are independent of any employer.
Write an essay on the rise and development of the trade union movement in india
By its very nature, strike is a test of strength and if it succeeds in wrecking damage on the management, it does so only at the expense of the workers. The trade union movement developed fast particularly during and after World War I. The objective for which formation of trade union takes place in the recognition of law is to spread industrial peace with aim to provide social, economical justice to people at large but this function can only be performed if the members of the trade unions are provided with civil liberty and democratic rights by the society they live in. State of U.

The number of outsiders in a union should be limited to 30 percent only and this percentage should even be less if the members of a union are 10, or more. The attendance at the general meetings of unions is very poor. Leadership of these associations came mainly from the philanthropists and social workers, rather the classes.
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Thus, at this time there were three central labour organisations i. The subscription rates are very low due to multiplicity of unions, unions interested in increasing their membership keep the subscription rates very low resulting inadequacy of funds with the unions. Employee and Employer Relations-for an industrial peace there must be harmony between employer and employee.
Write an essay on the rise and development of the trade union movement in india
They can refuse to bargain on the contention that there is not true representative union. Introduction of machinery, new lines of production, concentration of industries in certain big cities gave birth to a new class of wage earners and divided the industrial society into capitalist and labourers or haves and have nots. This is evidenced from the fact that the union office bearers were liable to be sued in civil courts and even might be liable for criminal prosecution in the event of stoppage of works and other trade union activities.
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Dajin

Government displayed its wisdom and ingenuity in curbing trade union activities. The Act defined the legal position of trade unions in definite and precise terms.

Kazrajora

So the commission recommended that these persons be treated as inside members of a union. In alphabetical order. Similarly, a successful drive may also bring the management to terms. The Court declared the trade union activity as an illegal conspiracy. To do so, it must first request recognition from the employer in writing.

Nern

Wadia—a political man as well as an associate of Annie Besant—was brought into the labour front to carry the political movement to the factories, particularly European-managed factories like Buckingham and Karnatic Mills. Industrial Unions are organized on the basis of industry, for example, if the workers of a cotton textile factory decide to form a union of workers of different crafts, the union will be called an industrial union.

Gujin

In , when socialist group broke away from the congress in and formed a new political party i.

Grocage

This resulted in a wide influence of unions and workers' organisations and led to significantly favourable social legislation being enacted in the first decade of Independence. Bengalee prepared a bill on child labour and sent it to the Governor of Bombay for consideration in

Taura

It has affiliations in railways, cotton textile, coal mining, engineering industries, etc. History[ edit ] The setting up of textile and clothing mills around the port cities of Bombay now Mumbai , Calcutta now Kolkata , Madras now Chennai and Surat in the second half of the 19th century led to the beginnings of the industrial workforce in India. They focused attention of the public to the necessity of improving the working conditions in the factories and laid foundations for the establishment of trade unions, which came into existence after the First World War.

Fenrizil

Even then, one must not lose sight of the fact that the working class was gaining in solidarity. He called upon the unions under its influence to disaffiliate themselves from the AITUC and join the new organisation opposed to the communist ideology. Joshi seceded from the parent body and formed a new organisation—the All India Trade Union Federation. They have succeeded in organising Central Union Federations which help in the determination of principles, philosophy, ideology and purposes of the unions and give some sense of direction to the otherwise scattered and isolated unions.

Kill

In the words of S. In alphabetical order. It creates organisation for their self-protection, safeguarding of their common interest and betterment of their social and economic position. This research article mainly focuses on the roles and objectives of Trade Union in India. Strike directly suspends production, cuts the creation of profit, cut off the employer from the market, may lose the source of materials and fixed charges such as interest, taxes and salaries for officials continue to be incurred during the strike period.

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