The present is marked by the loss of classically held values like courtesy, kindness, mercy, and pity, resulting in formation of people living by sadism. Contemporary Nepali English writing has adequately and variously responded to the historical development. The issues of international magnitude have appeared in creative works of contemporary times.
For 15 Of Nepalese Clay No. The ambivalence in attitude present through the words like "sub-[End Page ]Americans" and "the flames of terrorism" reflects the confusion of creative artist. On the one hand, it appears like appreciation for the act; yet, the very next line perceives fear emanating through such act. The prolonged series of misunderstandings begin in when the armed revolution was launched in the country. Thus, the fear of the poet and the influence of the politics and debate of the left to redefine nationalism against the backdrop of Western imperialism might have forced the poet to perceive every citizen attacked by the acts of terrorism as diminished by size.
Always an ardent critic of irrational aspect of the social practices, Hriseekesh Upadhyay responds to the lacks in society in his typical sarcastic tone; still, the search for corrective measures lie at the heart of his writings. He perceives Nepal through the eyes of both natives and tourists, and critiques the cultural practices in a sarcastic tone.
The illogical and irrational practices, he observes, still continue in Nepali society. Thus, he critiques the narcissistic values emerging in society. The poet also assesses the discrepancies of social life and forms a grim picture in a typical tone of his. Though a clerk at a 17 Of Nepalese Clay No. When he talks to his friends, they show him the prospects of getting a gold medal and felicitations from the authority.
At the end, Pandal gets to know that there is no provision as yet and hence, he is advised to institute such medal for other people scoring high in those papers. The shattered hero is the mark of the age and contemporary academic quest for Upadhyay. The poet is heavily critical about the contemporary practice of the time of people with high ambition.
He beautifully notes: Make no mistake, the sun keeps its course on the horizon. To mourn the wasted life. Shedding tears for the strokes of blasted death.
I mourn for the mourners of the Kathmandu twilight. Such remarks from Nepali English writing open up an avenue to understand the process of history making as observed by the creative artist in Nepal. In the time, making such statement could have meant really an uncomfortable situation: in a split society like Nepal with state of emergency and a powerful king, use of refrain "I mourn for the mourners of the Kathmandu twilight" and words like "wasted life" and "blasted death" is certainly a bold response from a creative writer.
However, the effect of the event is frightening one: he writes, "As terror rose within us we screamed in fear and rushed out of the room and out of the palace, shouting incoherently" Those incoherent babbles are interpreted by multitude of people in multiple ways, thus avoiding the possibility of singular, conclusive interpretation.
The esthetic rendering of the historical episode comes close to what Hriseekesh Upadhyay refers to as the emotionally carried away mourners of the Kathmandu twilight. The paralyzing effect of the time as evidenced turns people into the helpless waiting for a revolutionary messiah to appear in the scene. In fact, the political and social tension is projected as the dark force, capable of demolishing the very foundation of society when he writes: In this home turned into hothouse, My father fights with my mother, Who fights with me and my sister, And we all fight with our ancestry, That built our history.
Corruption and bribery have appeared as the fundamental features of state bureaucracy that has begun to malfunction in society after the political change in society in Similarly, Upadhyay's critical attitude in "History in the Making" is a powerful response to the contemporary political development. After the nation is declared a republic "at the stroke of midnight," he says, "We have freedom to join the compulsory marches" The paradox presented refers to the paradox of present situation in socio-political scene as "The players have changed.
The attack is directed towards fruitlessness of the achievement of time in this poem. Similarly, from D. Like Nietzsche, Thapa also wants history to be useful for human life at present. The crisis of contemporary time, 22 Of Nepalese Clay No. The implied futility of all human acts results at present from inability to learn lessons from history. Also, the issues of self-awakening and attaining selfhood are found in Nepali English writing as it seeks to impart hope in the contemporary times.
Laxmi Devi Rajbhandari points out the need to do away with every kind of mask for awakening of the self to enjoy the real glimpse of the world.
When masks begin to guide us as to how to relate ourselves to present and present to our being, she finds a beautiful way out in rejecting every mask. She implies that wishes and desires are what shape our attitude about the world and about ourselves. Besides, the external conditions and tensions of the society hit by internal conflict and the turbulent 23 Of Nepalese Clay No.
That is what he refers to by a "better[End Page ] place to live" used in the title of the poem. The self- awakening is genuinely required as the ultimate solution to the contemporary crisis for Basanta Lohani.
Likewise, Mohan Lohani coins a beautiful image of war and peace when he declares: War and peace Two sides of the same coin Integral to the binary system War begets peace. He 24 Of Nepalese Clay No. Mohan Lohani delves into duality and paradox as nature of beings, whereby drawing hope and possibility of coherent society even amidst the loss of any binding chain. Nepali English writing has sought the binding chain in reinterpretation of classical themes and accounts to perceive the contemporary reality.
For example, Laxmi Devi Rajbhandari draws on the Hindu origin myth to talk about the ultimate principles of creation and preservation in the form of Brahma and Vishnu. She then goes on to contemplate on the nature of self.
Likewise, Keshav Sigdel depicts the reverse quest of contemporary youths in attaining self-hood when he portrays city as "a land of the enlightened" The modern quest for knowledge and comfort of the world through city-life is at the heart of the contemporary time. The poet in the end is doubtful 25 Of Nepalese Clay No.
Ammaraj Joshi's "An Unanswered Question" sets the poetic persona in search of the maker through the maddening crowd. Although he realizes the importance of his parents behind the possibility of his existence, the essence yet remains unknown.
The contemporary quest for the essence does not yield any fruit as depicted in the poem. In fact, the question that remains unanswered[End Page ] marks the ethos of the age. Many questions get essentially left unanswered and thus, the seeker remains puzzled. For Joshi, the concept of maker is intertwined with creative principle that manifests in the form of poetic inspiration of Muse: he meditates upon the sources of poetic inspiration in "The 26 Of Nepalese Clay No.
Similarly, Khem Aryal finds moments of poetic inspiration in the setting sun in Japan that brings into mind native images into the collage of his poem. He sees shepherds busy in the dusk gathering the cattle, plough-men in a hurry to reach home, farmers messaging the backs of their buffaloes, children at play, and youths singing songs of sorrow and pity In a foreign land, he is reminded of these images through the prospect of sun setting.
Implicitly, both Joshi and Aryal seem to agree that the daily affairs of life in general are the themes to work on for creative artists despite multiple questions posed to understand the nature of creation. The contemporary writing in English from Nepal largely draws from present day social phenomena. We never are" The insatiable human greed has pushed the Bagmati to the present state. The material quest of human beings has forced natural resources to diminish in size; however, she knows how to avenge herself.
Relativity refers to key defining feature of present: contemporary Nepali English writing also cherishes the relative over the absolute. Our translators have prepared the following brief guide about the Nepali language.
Nepali is spoken in a number of dialects, the major ones being central, western, and eastern. The phonological variations in the Nepali language, as it is spoken across the various South Asian countries is not significant.
Nepali language developed in close proximity to several Tibeto-Burman languages whose influences are apparent in the language. Nepali is also quite closely related to Hindi, and is mutually intelligible to both Hindi and Urdu speakers.
However, it is comparatively more conservative. Unlike Hindi it has borrowed very few words from English and Persian, and relies more upon Sanskritic derivations. This leaves 20 Nepalese languages, only one of which, Nepali , is used in written form in all walks of life and can be considered fully literate; however most of them have at least some limited use in writing.
Nepalese writing However only four of these purely Nepalese languages have any significant tradition of being written: Nepali, historically known as Khas, Parbatiya and Gorkhali, with 11,, speakers in , has been written in Devanagari, the script used across north India and in particular for Hindi , for around years.
Newari , with , speakers in , is known as Nepal Bhasa within the linguistic community, and has been written for over a thousand years in a number of scripts. Limbu with , speakers in , has a traditional script Sirijanga which was probably derived from Lepcha writing Omniglot Lepcha also known as Rong , with 2, speakers in Nepal but 48, in Sikkim in India, is written in a script evolved from the Tibetan script, which tradition claims was devised in the 17th or 18th centuries Wikipedia b.
Ethnologue only reports limited literacy for Newari and Limbu, not surprising since these languages were suppressed by successive Nepalese governments from the late 18th century onwards until While the writing of Limbu and Lepcha was probably only ever used for special cultural and religious texts, Newar writing was used for a wide range of purposes until the overthrow of their regime by the Gorkhas in the mid 18th century.
Note that cross border languages, and particularly Maithili and Bhojpuri, also have their own mature literature and may be written in their own distinctive script; for Maithili the script is known as Mithilaksha or Tirhuta, for Bhojpuri it is Kaithi. Indic writing including Devanagari and Bengali has been printed in movable type since around , with the type evolving and being simplified over the centuries see for example Ross BIS One significant difference between ISCII and Unicode was that in ISCII all the scripts of India had been unified within a single table, with the different scripts selected by appropriate font, whereas in Unicode these were dis-unified into separate code blocks.
The encoding of Limbu was added to the Unicode Standard in April with the release of version 4. Limbu was introduced to the standardisation process by McGowan and Everson in , and a proposal was written jointly by Boyd Michaelovsky and Michael Everson in
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Similarly, Upadhyay's critical attitude in "History in the Making" is a powerful response to the contemporary political development.
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Contemporaneity heavily relies on aspirations, responses, reactions, and perceptions as part of present, inventing metaphors to communicate the perceptions. Both Radhakrishnan and Chatterjee argue for the need to construction own paradigm to study and assess the creative impetus that is shaped by the 3 Of Nepalese Clay No.