With very brief instruction, Wallace and Hayes ; Wallace et al. Such brief instruction, however, was not effective for struggling college writers Wallace et al. Instruction: A Focus on Revising Direct instruction, procedural facilitation, and apprenticeship models have been used to improve the revision skills of students at different ages and varying levels of writing competence. Direct instruction attempts to describe, and explicitly model, what revision is about and how to revise.
Research on direct instruction in revision appears limited, but at least one study revealed beneficial effects of teaching in this way to sixth graders. In a seminal study by Fitzgerald and Markham , students learned four types of revisions how to add, delete, rewrite, and move text in a series of 3-day lesson cycles. Procedural Facilitation Scardamalia and Bereiter , developed procedural routines for students in a series of studies to reduce the executive burden involved in revising, by signaling movement from one element of revising to the next and by limiting the number of evaluative and tactical decisions to be made.
Their compare, diagnose, and operate CDO routines helped students identify problem areas, evaluate and explain the problems, select a revising tactic, and carry it out. Because students with disabilities are more likely to have problems with executive control, Graham taught fifth and sixth graders with LD how to use a modified version of the CDO routine used by Scardamalia and Bereiter Revising one sentence at a time, the student selected one of seven possible evaluations e.
A primary difference in the more recent study was the inclusion of additional steps to engage students in applying the directives twice, first at a global level and then at a local level.
Results indicated that when revising with the CDO procedure, students were more likely to improve the quality of their essays than under normal conditions. Meaning-preserving revisions tended to improve quality under the CDO procedure; in contrast, meaning-changing revisions appeared to lower quality.
Thus, while students made more changes affecting the meaning of their text, some changes resulted in lower quality ratings, because these students with LD were limited in their ability to carry out evaluative and tactical decisions.
Evidence from a study by Midgette, Haria, and MacArthur demonstrates that setting content and audience awareness goals can function as procedural facilitators for students during revising.
Older students were more successful than younger students in responding to the content plus audience awareness goals; however, all students in this condition outperformed other students in addressing and rebutting reasons in their essays. Somewhat surprisingly, the two content goal conditions appeared equivalent in terms of effects on overall quality.
Other researchers using the SRSD model, which combines strategy instruction with self-regulation support, have focused on changes in meaning e. An additional goal of this study was to determine the effects of instruction with students who were identified as English learners, as well as with students with LD, or who were low-, average-, and high-achieving writers.
The results were remarkably similar for EL and non-EL students. In this study, the effects were apparent with the students who struggled most with writing as well as with more capable writers. Students with LD and students who were low-achieving writers made two to three times the number of revisions that made the quality of the text better, and they reduced or eliminated the number of revisions that lowered the quality of their text both immediately after instruction and one month later.
Thus, relatively young writers achieved independence in revising after learning a meta-cognitive strategy. Thus, our characterization of multi-pronged studies such as these as either planning or revising was done partly for convenience in explaining these cognitive processes. Knowledge of Genre General Development All writers rely on knowledge of shared rhetorical conventions, such as genre. By the term genre, we refer to more than the structural features of text and include the illocutionary purposes that texts serve within the contexts of specific disciplines and discourse communities.
However, genre knowledge develops, in part, from experience with text structures. Instruction: A Focus on Genre and Text Structure A survey of empirical intervention research revealed more published work on text structure than on genre.
Genre theory is seen as part of a functional approach to language learning, because it considers language as texts genres that are realized in contexts registers through knowledge and use of a functional grammar for making meaning Schleppegrell, Moreover, SFL provides an analytical lens to understanding language because it requires students to understand when and how to use language and to make linguistic choices in real e.
With respect to text structure, researchers have focused on teaching students basic elements of narrative, persuasive, or compare-contrast texts, e. More generally, it is important to note that researchers who employ expert-novice apprenticeship models typically embed instruction in text structure as a means to communicate information about the genre under consideration to students. Many writing intervention studies involving planning include a focus on text structure e.
Englert and her colleagues describe ACCelerating Expository Literacy ACCEL as a program designed to integrate reading and writing strategies in learning about science and social studies from expository texts. Together, both strategies and text structure form the basis of the overall curriculum.
In sum, the overall effort was to help students develop writing-to-learn strategies that would help them in the expository curriculum Englert, In their most recent program evaluation, organizing information was difficult for students with and without learning difficulties to master. However, students with LD made relatively larger gains than students without learning problems, based on an improved ability to selectively identify main ideas and details in printed texts, take well-organized notes, and generate written retellings that contained related details and ideas.
Middle-school students learned to summarize sources using text structure or a self-regulatory planning strategy. Students in the text structure condition received explicit instruction in composing from textbook sources, relying on summarization rules and text structure e.
Students in the strategy condition followed mnemonics and engaged in personal goal setting. Results, while indicating nearly comparable performance, are not truly representative of apprenticeship models, because elements such as teacher modeling self-regulatory statements, collaborative practice, and criterion-based instruction were omitted from instruction.
Moreover, independent practice was limited to completing assignments that teachers began for students either in class or as homework rather than independent planning and composing, as in true expert-novice apprenticeship models. More work on the differential effects of components in multi-pronged intervention research is needed, both to be parsimonious and to understand which elements contribute most to the effects produced by complex interventions.
Practical Implications and Future Directions The model of writing proposed by Hayes and Flower in was intended to be general, not specific to a discipline. However, as writing research has matured, the importance of disciplinary perspectives, including genre, has become apparent.
Skilled writers seem to have ready access to, if not explicit awareness of, such discourse and rhetorical knowledge Langer, ; Stockton, Genre and stylistic knowledge seem to influence many aspects of the writing process, including even lexical and syntactic choices Barton, ; Bazerman, ; MacDonald, ; Van de Kopple, In addition, Rieke and Sillars describe argument structure as presenting a clear position, supporting claims with relevant justification and elaborations, considering counterarguments, and finding ways of refuting those counterarguments.
However, Ferretti, Andrews-Weckerly, and Lewis contend that argumentative strategies are influenced by the nature of the writing task, the degree to which writers hold shared knowledge about a topic, and the writing purpose.
Moreover, Stevens, Wineburg, Herrenkohl, and Bell argued that the nature of effective argumentation differs across disciplines because the epistemological criteria for causal explanations differ. Thus, argument is a common text structure employed in many disciplines as a means for persuading or convincing others, but the nuances of the argumentation genre can vary across disciplines.
Disciplinary Perspectives Students then must understand how arguments vary across disciplines. In recent years, advocates for disciplinary literacy articulate differences in the ways teachers should guide adolescents to approach reading and writing tasks in secondary content classes based on inherent differences in the ways that experts think in the sciences e.
Recent evidence from McNeill indicates that dialogue is a critical vehicle for helping students learn to justify claims as they write scientific arguments. Thus, more research is needed to explore how expert teachers help students learn to develop interpretations that are supported with evidence see Monte-Sano, , as well as research on interventions aimed at improving disciplinary argumentation e. Although experienced writers describe overlapping and recursive processes during writing such as revising the beginning of a sentence before returning to generate content that concludes the sentence , the ability to capture the development of such phenomenon in writing research, as well as strategies for systematically teaching youngsters how to think about writing in such sophisticated ways, remains limited.
Researchers who employ an empirical tradition have found benefit in direct instruction, procedural facilitation, and expert-novice apprenticeship models for teaching planning, translating, and reviewing. Knowledge of genre and text structure have an effect on the writer and writing task and as such may be viewed as influences from the task environment Hayes, ; however, writing that is purposeful also has disciplinary meanings, and we note that recent activity, such as research on argumentation, has considered such contexts.
We join others in a call for continued exploration of writing development and interventions that have disciplinary connections, especially for adolescents who are expected to connect writing to content area learning. This is an exciting time to engage in writing research, as the examination of writing within disciplines such as history and science provides opportunities for researchers and teachers to explore new avenues to support student writing and thinking.
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Data Gathering 1. Results 4. The major procedures for analyzing the think-aloud protocol data included transcribing the transcripts fully, segmenting and coding utterances of strategies. The transcribed protocols then were segmented by watching videos.
The segmenting procedure was based on the identified points where the students moved from one strategy to another. Other strategies were also deleted, combined and separated if they were found unsatisfactory.
Each segmented unit was coded according to the components I discovered in my study. In the planning process, I found the students did not use the strategy of organizing as stated by Flower and Hayes. In addition, in the translating process, the component was blank in the Flower and Hayes model.
Based upon my findings, the translating process was divided into two sub-strategies, generating pretext and generating texts.
Finally, in the Flower and Hayes model, the reviewing process was divided into reading and editing sub-strategies. These two sub-strategies were also problematic. I found the student writers did not only read and edit, but also evaluate, revise and give general comments.
RP Reading the Prompt Reading the prompt refers to the act of reading or rereading the writing prompt. It is a sub-process that the writers go through in order to understand the writing task. Planning 2. Example: "Yes, I agree with this statement. IW Interpreting the Writing Task Interpreting the writing task refers to the process of responding to the prompt and defining the task.
Example: "I think this topic is a little bit difficult. Example: "I will begin with the points I agree. MS I Memory Search for Ideas Memory search for ideas refers to the process in which a writer asks a question in order to generate sentences or ideas.
Example: "any other technology? MS L Memory Search for Languages Memory search for languages refers to the process in which a writer asks a question in order to find a word or expression to use. Example: "Europe. GI Generating Ideas Generating ideas refers to the process of retrieving information from long-term memory. Example: "Also I want. I want to. I want say some data online. Online database. Online resources. Composing 8. When the utterance corresponds closely to the words that are usually immediately written after the rehearsing act, the act of producing the utterance will be categorized as "generating pretext" rather than "generating ideas.
Reviewing R Reading sentence s The process of reading a sentence or a group of sentences is an important part of the review process. This process is recursive in nature. For example, reviewing phase may lead to a change in plans and a renewal of the drafts, which may again be followed by phase of reviewing, and so forth.
EV Evaluating the written text Evaluating the written text refers to the act of making evaluative comments of the written text. Example: "zhe4 the conclusion tai4 duan3 le is too short.
Ying gai zai4 xie3 i1 ju4. I should add one more sentence " Mary. E Editing the written text Editing the written text refers to making the changes that do not result in a meaning change such as fixing the grammatical or mechanical errors or such as correcting the sentence structure, spelling, punctuation, etc. GC Giving general Comments Giving general comments refers to the utterances that are less directly related to the process of writing, but are found in the think-aloud procedure.
Example: "Oh. I save it. To wait. Contextual Influence Example: "Zai4 yue4 du2 de shi2 ho4. Yao4 ba3 hua4 jiang3 ch lai2.
When you are reading, you should speak it out " Alice. Figure 4. Conclusion and Pedagogical Implications Process: Writing and Pedagogy What do the Research Findings in the Writing Process Tell Us: An important goal in writing instruction is to help students develop the self-regulation skills needed to successfully manage the intricacies of the writing process. It holds important implications for writing instruction, particularly in teaching students which parts they have to be more aware of in their writing processes as well as the need to regulate these processes.
The opportunity for students to see their earlier ideas on the written page and to rethink them is perhaps the most important method towards the development of metacognitive awareness. Limitations and Suggestions for Future Research The small sample size limits the generalizability of the results; the findings should be confirmed with a larger sample of participants.
Furthermore, this study, being experimental and exploratory in nature, seeks to generate theory and stimulate further research in the area of the cognitive writing process. Therefore, all the findings and the composing process model I attempted to build should be tested by future research.
With the help of technology, people nowadays can learn more information and learn it more quickly. P So it means that I must agree that people nowadays can learn more information and learn it more quickly with the help of technology.
So I think I need to. FP IW. E With the help. E with the growth of. EV And development of technology. E Technology. I change to m. All right. My mistake. G Computer science. RP People get a lot of benefit from. E benefit from. Many people get a lot of benefit.
E in terms of the speed and quantity of the information. RP They received. G It changed automatically. GC They received. With the growth and development of technology and especially computer science, people get a lot of benefits.
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Stelmach Ed. With the growth and development of technology and especially computer science, people get a lot of benefits. How to measure PhD. Breetvelt, I.
Soechting, J. Instruction: A Focus on Text Generation Some students will benefit from direct instruction that focuses on a different aspect of mechanics i. D Daiute, C. Processing time and cognitive effort in revision: effects of error type and of working memory capacity.
Elsevier: Academic Press. RP They received. Pausing, productivity and the processing of topic in on-line writing. Orlando: Academic Press.
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