Web pages The elements and format necessary for citing a web page in APA style format are similar to those used when citing an article.
Finding the necessary information for your citation can sometimes be tricky, and we have tried to provide some tips below. Also, note that the order of the citation may change if certain elements are missing, e. Information about the author may be found near the top of the page, or it might be found at the bottom of the page, as is the case in the example below. Single author: Put the last name first, followed by a comma, followed by the initial of the first name and the middle name, if available , then a period.
Reference entry Kraizer, S. Preventing bullying. Reference entry All things Nittany. Reference entry American Psychological Association. Recovering emotionally from disaster. In-text references should always precede punctuation marks. For more about citing articles retrieved from electronic databases, see pages of the Publication Manual.
A study of enjoyment of peas. Journal of Abnormal Eating, 8 3 , However, if the full text is not available, you may use an abstract that is available through an abstracts database as a secondary source. Paterson, P. How well do young offenders with Asperger Syndrome cope in custody? British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 36 1 , Hendricks, J.
A world apart? Bridging the gap between theory and applied social gerontology. Gerontologist, 50 3 , Abstract retrieved from Abstracts in Social Gerontology database.
Accession No. Year, Month Day. Title of Newspaper. Psychiatry handbook linked to drug industry. The New York Times. Use the following format if the book you are using is only provided in a digital format or is difficult to find in print. If the work is not directly available online or must be purchased, use "Available from," rather than "Retrieved from," and point readers to where they can find it. For books available in print form and electronic form, include the publish date in parentheses after the author's name.
For references to e-book editions, be sure to include the type and version of e-book you are referencing e. If DOIs are available, provide them at the end of the reference. De Huff, E. Familiar birdsongs of the Northwest. Dracula [Kindle DX version]. Retrieved from Amazon. For example you may have a year but no month or day.
If there is no date provided, put the letters n. Retrieval Date If the content of a website is likely to change over time e. Wikis , you must provide the date you last visited the website. Cancer research. Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author's last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses.
According to Jones , "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" p. Jones found "students often had difficulty using APA style" p. If the author is not named in a signal phrase, place the author's last name, the year of publication, and the page number in parentheses after the quotation.
Long quotations Place direct quotations that are 40 words or longer in a free-standing block of typewritten lines and omit quotation marks.
Scott, D. Adventures in Education. All rights reserved. The page's title can often be found in the blue title bar at the top of your browser's window. Formatting Note: All citations should be double spaced and have a hanging indent in a Reference List. Interactive Maps and Other Graphic Representations of Data Give the name of the researching organization followed by the date.
Example: The role of the amygdala in agoraphobia. This means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, for example, Jones, , and a complete reference should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper. When referencing a print article obtained from an online database such as a database in the library , provide appropriate print citation information formatted just like a "normal" print citation would be for that type of work.