Step 1: Consult the guidelines or instructions that the target journal or publisher provides authors and read research papers it has published, especially those with similar topics, methods, or results to your study. The guidelines will generally outline specific requirements for the results or findings section, and the published articles will provide sound examples of successful approaches.
Note length limitations on restrictions on content. Focus on experimental results and other findings that are especially relevant to your research questions and objectives and include them even if they are unexpected or do not support your ideas and hypotheses.
Catalogue your findings—use subheadings to streamline and clarify your report. This will help you avoid excessive and peripheral details as you write and also help your reader understand and remember your findings.
Create appendices that might interest specialists but prove too long or distracting for other readers. Decide how you will structure of your results. You might match the order of the research questions and hypotheses to your results, or you could arrange them according to the order presented in the Methods section.
A chronological order or even a hierarchy of importance or meaningful grouping of main themes or categories might prove effective. Consider your audience, evidence, and most importantly, the objectives of your research when choosing a structure for presenting your findings.
Step 3: Design figures and tables to present and illustrate your data. Tweet Charts are often used in research papers to present experimental results. Today, I will discuss how to make good looking charts for presenting research results. I will not cover everything about this topic. But I will explain some key ideas.
If you are using Excel to make charts for your research papers, one of the most common mistakes is to use the default chart style. The default style is very colorful with large lines. In the References section list citations in alphabetical order. Indigo, A. Queer place for qwerty: gene isolation from the platypus. Science , Magenta, S. Wombat genetics. In: Widiculous Wombats, Violet, Q. New York: Columbia University Press. Scarlet, S. Isolation of qwerty gene from S. Journal of Unusual Results 36, Unfortunately, they're all the same page.
Write accurately Scientific writing must be accurate. Although writing instructors may tell you not to use the same word twice in a sentence, it's okay for scientific writing, which must be accurate. A student who tried not to repeat the word "hamster" produced this confusing sentence: "When I put the hamster in a cage with the other animals, the little mammals began to play. Instead of: The rats were injected with the drug. Be careful with commonly confused words: Temperature has an effect on the reaction.
Effective Tables and Figures. McMillan VE. Using Tables and Figures. In Writing Papers in the Biological Sciences pp.
New York: St. American Psychologist, ; 57 10 : — Purdue Online Writing Lab. APA Tables and Figures 1. SAGE Publications. Paradise C. Annals of Emergency Medicine, ; 48 6 : — If you always get clear-cut answers whenever you ask this question, then the study is proceeding towards the right direction.
Besides application of a template which contains the intended clear-cut messages to be followed will contribute to the communication of net messages. One of the important mistakes is refraining from critical review of the manuscript as a whole after completion of the writing process.
Therefore, the authors should go over the manuscript for at least three times after finalization of the manuscript based on joint decision. The first control should concentrate on the evaluation of the appropriateness of the logic of the manuscript, and its organization, and whether desired messages have been delivered or not. Secondly, syutax, and grammar of the manuscript should be controlled. It is appropriate to review the manuscript for the third time 1 or 2 weeks after completion of its writing process.
Other erroneous issues consist of superfluousness of the manuscript with unnecessary repetitions, undue, and recurrent references to the problems adressed in the manuscript or their solution methods, overcriticizing or overpraising other studies, and use of a pompous literary language overlooking the main objective of sharing information. Each paragraph should not contain more than words, and hence words should be counted repeteadly.
The introductory paragraph contains the main idea of performing the study in question. The introductory paragraph starts with an undebatable sentence, and proceeds with a part addressing the following questions as 1 On what issue we have to concentrate, discuss or elaborate?
However summarizing the basic findings of the experimental studies in the first paragraph is generally recommended by the editors of the journal. Indicating limitations of the study will reflect objectivity of the authors, and provide answers to the questions which will be directed by the reviewers of the journal.
On the other hand in the last paragraph, future directions or potential clinical applications may be emphasized. How should the intermediate paragraphs of the Discussion section be formulated? The reader passes through a test of boredom while reading paragraphs of the Discussion section apart from the introductory, and the last paragraphs.
Herein your findings rather than those of the other researchers are discussed.
The reader passes through a test of boredom while reading paragraphs of the Discussion section apart from the introductory, and the last paragraphs. Information in figures should be relatively self-explanatory with the aid of captions , and their design should include all definitions and other information necessary for readers to understand the findings without reading all of the text. Subsequently, in the light of the current literature this finding is discussed, new ideas on this subject are revealed, and the paragraph ends with a concluding remark. Since they are unrelated both to the author s , and subject matter of the manuscript, these referees can review our manuscript more objectively.
This is where you present the results you've gotten.
Electronic Artwork—An Introduction.
If you can summarize the information in one sentence, then a table or graph is not necessary. On the other hand, manuscript writing process should begin before the completion of the study even the during project stage. Especially before writing the manuscript, the most important step at the start is to construct a draft, and completion of the manuscript on a theoretical basis. For graphs, you should also label the x and y axes. Temperature affects the reaction.
If you present your data in a table or graph, include a title describing what's in the table "Enzyme activity at various temperatures", not "My results". With hundreds of qualified editors from dozens of scientific fields, Wordvice has helped thousands of authors revise their manuscripts and get accepted into their target journals. I think that it looks like a great alternative, that could also be used with LaTeX. On the other hand in the last paragraph, future directions or potential clinical applications may be emphasized.
Other surgeons tie them, and it stops the bleeding just as well.
The abstract should be a little less technical than the article itself; you don't want to dissuade your potent ial audience from reading your paper. The Results section appears third in the section sequence in most scientific papers. It is not easy to include all this information in just a few words.