This utility comes from the consumption of goods and services that create pollution. Therefore, it is important that policymakers attempt to balance these indirect benefits with the costs of pollution in order to achieve an efficient outcome. It is possible to use environmental economics to determine which level of pollution is deemed the social optimum.
At this point the damage of one extra unit of pollution to society, the marginal cost of pollution, is exactly equal to the marginal benefit of consuming one more unit of the good or service. If the social costs of pollution are higher than the private costs incurred by the firm, then the true supply curve will be higher. The point at which the social marginal cost and market demand intersect gives the socially optimal level of pollution.
At this point, the quantity will be lower and the price will be higher in comparison to the free market equilibrium. Some examples include tariffs , a carbon tax and cap and trade systems. Sources and causes Play media Air pollution produced by ships may alter clouds, affecting global temperatures. Air pollution comes from both natural and human-made anthropogenic sources. However, globally human-made pollutants from combustion, construction, mining, agriculture and warfare are increasingly significant in the air pollution equation.
Principal stationary pollution sources include chemical plants , coal-fired power plants , oil refineries ,  petrochemical plants, nuclear waste disposal activity, incinerators, large livestock farms dairy cows, pigs, poultry, etc. Agricultural air pollution comes from contemporary practices which include clear felling and burning of natural vegetation as well as spraying of pesticides and herbicides  About million metric tons of hazardous wastes are generated each year.
Humans have ways to cut greenhouse gas emissions and avoid the consequences of global warming, a major climate report concluded. But to change the climate, the transition from fossil fuels like coal and oil needs to occur within decades, according to the final report this year from the UN's Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change IPCC.
In a series of press reports culminating in a book called Fateful Harvest unveiled a widespread practice of recycling industrial byproducts into fertilizer, resulting in the contamination of the soil with various metals. Ordinary municipal landfills are the source of many chemical substances entering the soil environment and often groundwater , emanating from the wide variety of refuse accepted, especially substances illegally discarded there, or from pre landfills that may have been subject to little control in the U.
And if carbon dioxide there more ventilate in sit, more warmth is therefore held and becomes it warmer on ground. Air pollution may be described as contamination of the atmosphere by gaseous, liquid or solid wastes or by-products that can endanger human health and welfare of plants and animals, attack materials, reduce visibility, or produce undesirable odors.
As some pollutants are released by natural sources like volcanoes, coniferous forests, and hot springs, the effect of this pollution is very small when compared to that caused by emissions from industrial sources, power and heat generation, waste disposal, and the operation of internal-combustion engines. Fuel combustion is the largest contributor to human caused air pollutant emissions, with stationary and mobile sources responsible for approximately equal amounts.
The air pollution problem is both outdoors and indoors. The major pollutants which contribute to the indoor air pollution include radon, volatile organic compounds, formaldehyde, biological contaminants, and combustion by-products such as carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrocarbons, nitrogen dioxides, and particulates. A substance in the air that can be adverse to humans and the environment is known as an air pollutant.
Pollutants can be in the form of solid particles, liquid droplets, or gases. In addition, they may be natural or man-made. Pollutants can be classified as primary or secondary. Usually, primary pollutants are directly produced from a process, such as ash from a volcanic eruption, the carbon monoxide gas from a motor vehicle exhaust or sulphur dioxide released from factories.
Secondary pollutants are not emitted directly. Six sites up to 10 km upwind from the main sources of industrial pollution were selected. Introduction 1. Air Pollution Air pollution has been a major problem throughout world for the past 5 decades i.
There are two types of air pollutions a Natural and b Anthropogenic, of which the natural causes volcanoes, forest fires and tornadoes are not in the control of man Mosley Not only does this process affect the plants, animals, and insects in their habitat, farmers also use that water for irrigation, causing harmful effects to the food we eat.
Water pollution has caused many different groundwater sources to be labeled as unsafe for people and animals alike. Once it is rendered dangerous, the only use for that water is for it to be reused in the plants that initially harmed it. Soil Pollution Soil pollution is the result of land degradation, and it is caused because of human-made xenobiotic chemicals as a result of industrial activity, the improper disposing of waste and various agricultural chemicals.
Soil pollution poisons agriculture and sometimes kills local vegetation. The results of soil pollution include chronic health concerns for people who work with soil, for farmers, and for people who consume the fruits and vegetables from contaminated land. Air Pollution Similar to water and soil pollution, air pollution has been the culprit for many illnesses, increasingly frequent over time.
The effects of air pollution have an impact on everyone, every day. It is caused by the smoke released by various industries. Animal Extinction Pollution is one of the most significant contributors to global warming. The rapid increase of global warming is of concern to many people. The greenhouse gasses, and the smoke that causes it is released into the air daily and causing consequential problems. Glaciers are melting, polar animals are becoming extinct, tsunamis, hurricanes, floods, and other natural disasters are increasing, and all of those are the effects of global warming.
Since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, it's been building up in Earth's atmosphere and contributing to the problem of global warming and climate change.
Nitrogen oxides: Nitrogen dioxide NO2 and nitrogen oxide NO are pollutants produced as an indirect result of combustion, when nitrogen and oxygen from the air react together. Nitrogen oxide pollution comes from vehicle engines and power plants, and plays an important role in the formation of acid rain, ozone and smog.
Nitrogen oxides are also "indirect greenhouse gases" they contribute to global warming by producing ozone, which is a greenhouse gas. Volatile organic compounds VOCs : These carbon-based organic chemicals evaporate easily at ordinary temperatures and pressures, so they readily become gases. That's precisely why they're used as solvents in many different household chemicals such as paints , waxes, and varnishes. Unfortunately, they're also a form of air pollution: they're believed to have long-term chronic effects on people's health and they also play a role in the formation of ozone and smog.
Particulates: These are the sooty deposits in air pollution that blacken buildings and cause breathing difficulties. The smaller "finer" the particulates, the deeper they travel into our lungs and the more dangerous they are. In cities, most particulates come from traffic fumes. Ozone: Also called trioxygen, this is a type of oxygen gas whose molecules are made from three oxygen atoms joined together so it has the chemical formula O3 , instead of just the two atoms in conventional oxygen O2.
In the stratosphere upper atmosphere , a band of ozone "the ozone layer" protects us by screening out harmful ultraviolet radiation high-energy blue light beaming down from the Sun. At ground level, it's a toxic pollutant that can damage health.
It forms when sunlight strikes a cocktail of other pollution and is a key ingredient of smog see box below. Chlorofluorocarbons CFCs : Once thought to be harmless, these gases were widely used in refrigerators and aerosol cans until it was discovered that they damaged Earth's ozone layer.
We discuss this in more detail down below. Unburned hydrocarbons: Petroleum and other fuels are made of organic compounds based on chains of carbon and hydrogen atoms. When they burn properly, they're completely converted into harmless carbon dioxide and water ; when they burn incompletely, they can release carbon monoxide or float into the air in their unburned form, contributing to smog.
Lead and heavy metals: Lead and other toxic "heavy metals" can be spread into the air either as toxic compounds or as aerosols when solids or liquids are dispersed through gases and carried through the air by them in such things as exhaust fumes and the fly ash contaminated waste dust from incinerator smokestacks. What are the causes of air pollution? Anything people do that involves burning things combustion , using household or industrial chemicals substances that cause chemical reactions and may release toxic gases in the process , or producing large amounts of dust has the potential to cause air pollution.
Step back a century or two and the cause of most air pollution was easy to identify: filthy factories, powering the Industrial Revolution. Today, tighter air pollution laws, greater environmental awareness , and determined campaigns mounted by local communities make it far harder—though by no means impossible—for factories to pollute in post-industrial nations such as the United States and Britain. Where, then, does modern air pollution come from?
By far the biggest culprit today is traffic, though power plants and factories continue to make an important contribution.
Before we start laying the blame for air pollution, let's remember one very important thing: most of us drive or travel in cars, use electricity , and buy goods made in factories. If we're pointing fingers, ultimately we're going to have to point them at ourselves. Now let's look a bit more closely at the three key sources of air pollution. Traffic There are over one billion cars on the road today—one for every two people in rich countries such as the United States. Virtually all of them are powered by gasoline and diesel engines that burn petroleum to release energy.
Petroleum is made up of hydrocarbons large molecules built from hydrogen and carbon and, in theory, burning them fully with enough oxygen should produce nothing worse than carbon dioxide and water. In practice, fuels aren't pure hydrocarbons and engines don't burn them cleanly. As a result, exhausts from engines contain all kinds of pollution, notably particulates soot of various sizes , carbon monoxide CO, a poisonous gas , nitrogen oxides NOx , volatile organic compounds VOCs , and lead—and indirectly produce ozone.
Mix this noxious cocktail together and energize it with sunlight and you get the sometimes brownish, sometimes blueish fog of pollution we call smog, which can hang over cities for days on end. Vehicles don't release pollution only from their tailpipes. Brake and tire wear and tear, the slow rubbing away of the road surface as tires rumble over it, and stirring up of the dust and debris on top of it also release significant amounts of PM10 and PM2.
Smog Photo: Brown smog lingers over Denver, Colorado. Smog isn't the stuff that pumps from a car's tailpipe or drifts from a factory smokestack—it's the nasty brown or blue haze that builds up over a city as a result. Smog a combination of the words "smoke" and "fog" forms when sunlight acts on a cocktail of pollutant gases such as nitrogen and sulfur oxides, unburned hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide; that's why it's sometimes called photochemical smog the energy in light causes the chemical reaction that makes smog.
One of the most harmful constituents of smog is a toxic form of oxygen called ozone, which can cause serious breathing difficulties and even, sometimes, death. When smog is rich in ozone, it tends to be a blueish color, otherwise it's more likely to be brown. Although smog can happen in any busy city, it's a particular problem in places such as Los Angeles where the local climate influenced by the ocean and neighboring mountains regularly causes what's known as a temperature inversion.
Normally, air gets colder the higher up you go but in a temperature inversion the opposite happens: a layer of warm air traps a layer of cold air nearer the ground. This acts like a lid over a cloud of smog and stops it from rising and drifting away. In the 's and early 's coal powered most industries. The burning of coal fills the air with smoke and soot.
Coal was a very efficient way of powering industries.
The revolution produced new exciting technological innovations. The rapid increase of global warming is of concern to many people.
Ordinary rainwater is a little bit more acidic than this with about the same acidity as bananas roughly pH 5. Industrial pollution hurts the environment in a range of ways, and it has a negative impact on human lives and health.
Chemical solvents used in dyeing and tanning industries. Regional air pollution Tall smokestacks designed to disperse pollution don't always have that effect. It also increases the products being made in the U. For the rest of this article, we'll consider only the "unnatural" types of pollution: the problems that people cause—and the ones we can solve.
Invasive plants can contribute debris and biomolecules allelopathy that can alter soil and chemical compositions of an environment, often reducing native species competitiveness. Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides can cause acid rain which lowers the pH value of soil.
In practice, fuels aren't pure hydrocarbons and engines don't burn them cleanly. If you're not sure how you're wasting energy, use an electricity monitor to help identify your most inefficient appliances. Lead and heavy metals: Lead and other toxic "heavy metals" can be spread into the air either as toxic compounds or as aerosols when solids or liquids are dispersed through gases and carried through the air by them in such things as exhaust fumes and the fly ash contaminated waste dust from incinerator smokestacks.