It is not unusual, after months of enslavement, for victims to lose their will to even think about escape. Major Contributing Factors to Human Trafficking Human trafficking is based on the simple economic principles of supply and demand Shelley, Global poverty is one of the major contributors to human trafficking because it creates a vulnerable supply of victims.
Conversely, the economic prosperity experienced by some countries over the last few decades has created vast wealth and exorbitant incomes for some individuals, with enough earnings to demand a market in the sale of humans Farr, Other reasons for its prevalence may be due to the belief that there is a relatively low risk of being apprehended and punished. Law enforcement preoccupation with stopping the sale of weapons and drugs and with terrorism leaves criminals with the impression that human trafficking laws will not be enforced and that their chances of being arrested and incarcerated are minimal at best Shelley, Thus, this false sense of security also drives the willingness of traffickers to continue their economic venture.
Globalization is generally defined as the increased connectivity between countries around the world, so much so that changes in the economy of one country, or changes in any other area such as in government or government services, have the potential to affect all those who inhabit this world Bales, ; Shelley, For instance, the advent of the Internet, the ease of travel or transportation between countries, and the fusion of world markets are all factors that affect this connectivity, which means that globalization can be thought of as global interdependency.
There are some scholars, such as Shelley , who believe that the North American Free Trade Agreement NAFTA and other such agreements that deregulated trade between countries contributed to an increase in transnational crime. Perhaps the first illegal business to profit was the sale of drugs, followed by the sale of weapons, and then the sale of humans.
They believe so not only because these agreements facilitate the flow of goods though not intentionally the flow of illegal good such as drugs, arms, and humans , but also because free trade agreements have a see-saw effect on global economies.
Some countries will inevitably experience growth and economic prosperity as the result of open trade markets, while others will experience economic despair. For others, economic desperation makes them vulnerable to human trafficking, since most victims fall prey to this crime out of a belief that the trafficker will provide them with a better life.
In sum, free trade agreements economically marginalize some countries to a point where illegal activities seem to be one of the few constant methods to make a living. Economic marginalization of countries tends to affect women more than men—a sort of disenfranchisement of women. A shortage in legitimate employment opportunities means that only a few will be able to work.
Those few are usually men, which leaves women facing severe poverty and extreme vulnerability. Also, economic marginalization means that countries will not be able to sustain most governmental services such as educational opportunities for all. Women again will be left out of the only available chances to receive an education.
With little hope of finding employment in their countries, some women decide to take their chances at finding occupations abroad. Also, with little or no education, these women have no awareness of the dangers of human trafficking. The economic despair that occurs for women due to globalization has been referred to by some scholars as the feminization of poverty Shelley, , , a term coined by Diana Pearce in However, there are other scholars, such as Aronowitz , who are of the opinion that political instability contributes to human trafficking.
The fall of the Soviet Union in the s is a prime example. Civil warfare in the region created people willing to sell humans for profit and to fund their political ideologies as well as fund their need for arms.
Civil warfare also created destitute individuals vulnerable to be trafficked. The inability of the tumultuous government to provide citizens with basic necessities created a spiraling feminization of poverty in the region. There were some who fled the country only to fall prey to human trafficking schemes in other countries. For instance, many people fled the crumbling Soviet Union to the newly independent states formed as the result of the collapse, only to find that places such as the Ukraine, Uzbekistan, and Kazakhstan are rife with human trafficking operations.
Communism, according to some scholars, may have been beneficial to the citizens of the former Soviet Union because at least the government provided just enough resources to keep a large segment of the population from abject poverty and to keep the feminization of poverty from spinning out of control Shelley, Human trafficking is still a very big problem across the world, even in the United States. Human trafficking has only increased over the past two decades.
At least that it was most Americans believe but that is not the case. It is the trafficking of women and children.
Scholars, nations and international organizations have individually or collectively tried to define human trafficking and, not surprisingly, they disagree with one another. Thinking that you are coming to the United States to start a land of opportunity. We as humans are endowed with certain indelible rights. Rights that give us the freedom, liberty, and knowledge to empower ourselves in our lives. Whether born into, abducted, kidnapped, raped, battered, or bruised, people fall victims to these acts against nature and moral sensibility every day.
Human trafficking is when a person is abducted from their current situation and mostly likely used for sex slavery. Furthermore, did you know human trafficking increased over the years? Listener relevance Although you may not be as aware in your comfortable surroundings, you should always be aware of suspicious vehicles and people. Unfortunately due to trafficking being a fast growing crime it is very difficult to identify and locate these organizations and victims. Although there are many groups created to support victims, not enough awareness is being made and not enough action is being applied to stop human trafficking.
The United States is one of the leading countries in which human traffickers seek out women and children as their targets. Unfortunately, human trafficking is a crime that occurs globally with many men, women, and children being forced to work as laborers and or sex workers. As is the case with many crimes, the statistics regarding human trafficking are sensationalized, making it seem as if it is more prevalent than it actually is.
Can I start you off with a drink? Benjamin pg. There have been many incidents and cases with human trafficking such as, sex trade, smuggling, violence, etc. Today, one can show how real is Human Trafficking.
This paper details the big enigma exist todays date, that Human Trafficking is real. The first world status of the United States provides a context in which human trafficking has become a major problem when defining domestic markets for criminal organizations. However, the U. The effects that you frequently feel are numb and now you are suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder. This is the reality that many endure on daily basis.
It is caused by the constant practice of human trafficking. She became a victim when she met a military man and fell in love. He then convinced her to to move to a remote location with him. She agreed and once she got there, she was beaten and raped.
Smuggling becomes trafficking when the element of force or coercion is introduced. Research Across the Government See a chart of all U. The U. Government defines human trafficking as: Sex trafficking in which a commercial sex act is induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or in which the person induced to perform such act has not attained 18 years of age. Trafficking victims seldom have access to health or social assistance or legal remedies such as financial compensation for work-related injuries or illness, disability-related lost future earnings, or unpaid wages.
Additionally, returnee migrants who failed to gain the income they and their family expected commonly feel deep disappointment and sometimes stigma, which can lead to poor mental health outcomes and potential risk of retrafficking [ 56 , 57 ]. Moreover, when one family member is disabled, other family members, including children, may be pushed into exploitative situations.
This can begin a generational cycle of entry into hazardous labor, such as has been observed among families and children working in palm oil plantations in Indonesia, mica mines in India, or tobacco farms in the United States [ 58 , 59 ]. Because there has been limited theoretical work conducted on labor exploitation and harm, this broad framework is meant to help guide future intervention research and prevention strategies.
However, each of the categories and variables proposed must be understood within differing historical and socioeconomic contexts and the reigning political climate that might, for instance, fuel discriminatory public discourse on migrants and migrant workers.
Discussion Slavery and its like have existed for millennia; so have social and economic inequalities. Through the declaration of the Sustainable Development Goals, the international community has promised that efforts will be dedicated to reducing poverty, ensuring healthy lives, and, most encouragingly, promoting decent work. This brings us back to the proposition we posed initially: human trafficking should be considered a global health concern. First, in terms of prevalence, when compared with other well-recognised global health problems such as the approximately 35 million people infected with HIV or the 1 million girls under age 15 who give birth every year [ 60 , 61 ], human trafficking seems to deserve similar attention, with current estimates at approximately Next, when considering harm, findings from studies around the world indicate consistently that most trafficked people experience violence and hazardous, exhausting work, and few emerge without longer-term, sometimes disabling, physical and psychological damage [ 54 ].
To date, there has been very limited engagement by the global health community in the dialogue on or responses to trafficking. So, how does one bring these communities together? As the first medical journal collection on human trafficking, exploitation, and health, the PLOS collection offers a good start towards gaining greater attention from the health sector.Criminal activities Any form of day labor In the United States, prostitution is the most common form of trafficking, followed by agricultural work U. Department of State, Prostitution is also the most common type of trafficking worldwide.
Human trafficking is a largely hidden crime that has only recently gained the attention of law enforcement, human rights advocates, and policymakers. Moreover, when one family member is disabled, other family members, including children, may be pushed into exploitative situations. The first world status of the United States provides a context in which human trafficking has become a major problem when defining domestic markets for criminal organizations. American ignorance has led to poor handling of the issues by policy makers.
Local livelihood challenges have pushed millions of individuals away from their homes towards income opportunities that are often difficult to refuse or in which conditions are nonnegotiable—including situations of human trafficking [ 43 ]. Human Trafficking has had a considerable affect on the World and United States.
The United States is a major port for human trafficking Human Trafficking. Study design A bibliometric method was implemented. Unscrupulous intermediaries are known to use extortion, deception, or coercion to exploit workers or to usher them towards abusive employers [ 37 ]. Human trafficking is an issue that is highly ignored.
Fear of deportation is also a way to maintain order, since victims are without passports and essentially at risk of being apprehended by authorities and sanctioned. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze published literature on HT. These countries are rarely places of destination for victims. At times, victims are recruited through advertisements in local newspapers. Globalization has made human trafficking an easier task for the criminal organizations.
The unfortunate occurrence, however, created a perfect situation for traffickers.
Global Transportation Patterns Because human trafficking is driven by the rudimentary principles underscoring supply and demand, certain parts of the globe have been found to serve as sites of origin, transit, and destination for victims. For instance, many people fled the crumbling Soviet Union to the newly independent states formed as the result of the collapse, only to find that places such as the Ukraine, Uzbekistan, and Kazakhstan are rife with human trafficking operations.
Moreover, when one family member is disabled, other family members, including children, may be pushed into exploitative situations.
With passports and visas confiscated, victims begin to realize that their promise of legitimate employment and a better life was false. The inability of the tumultuous government to provide citizens with basic necessities created a spiraling feminization of poverty in the region. The last two protocols recognized HT as a transnational crime rather than just human rights or migration issue [ 7 ]. Bibliometric analysis is a research method used to shed light on research activity [ 29 — 31 ]. We as humans are endowed with certain indelible rights. Asia also has been declared as a significant supplier of victims.
Debbie went outside to meet Bianca, who drove up in a Cadillac with two older men, Mark and Matthew. Thousands of children are believed to be forced to labor against their will in China, and most are beaten by their employers to prevent escape.