The Writing Center. Peter Redman. London: Sage, , pp. Demystifying the Journal Article. Inside Higher Education. Structure and Writing Style I. Structure and Approach The introduction is the broad beginning of the paper that answers three important questions for the reader: What is this? Why should I read it? Think of the structure of the introduction as an inverted triangle of information that lays a foundation for understanding the research problem.
Organize the information so as to present the more general aspects of the topic early in the introduction, then narrow your analysis to more specific topical information that provides context, finally arriving at your research problem and the rationale for studying it [often written as a series of key questions to be addressed or framed as a hypothesis or set of assumptions to be tested] and, whenever possible, a description of the potential outcomes your study can reveal.
These are general phases associated with writing an introduction: 1. Place your research within the research niche by: Stating the intent of your study, Outlining the key characteristics of your study, Describing important results, and Giving a brief overview of the structure of the paper. This is appropriate because outcomes are unknown until you've completed the study.
After you complete writing the body of the paper, go back and review introductory descriptions of the structure of the paper, the method of data gathering, the reporting and analysis of results, and the conclusion.
Reviewing and, if necessary, rewriting the introduction ensures that it correctly matches the overall structure of your final paper. Delimitations of the Study Delimitations refer to those characteristics that limit the scope and define the conceptual boundaries of your research. This is determined by the conscious exclusionary and inclusionary decisions you make about how to investigate the research problem.
In other words, not only should you tell the reader what it is you are studying and why, but you must also acknowledge why you rejected alternative approaches that could have been used to examine the topic. Obviously, the first limiting step was the choice of research problem itself. However, implicit are other, related problems that could have been chosen but were rejected. These should be noted in the conclusion of your introduction.
For example, a delimitating statement could read, "Although many factors can be understood to impact the likelihood young people will vote, this study will focus on socioeconomic factors related to the need to work full-time while in school. Examples of delimitating choices would be: The key aims and objectives of your study, The research questions that you address, The variables of interest [i. Review each of these decisions. Not only do you clearly establish what you intend to accomplish in your research, but you should also include a declaration of what the study does not intend to cover.
Journal article introductions from Pat Thomson All of this? Questions, context, arguments, sequence and style as well? This is a big ask. An introduction has a lot of work to do in few words. It is little wonder that people often stall on introductions.
So how to approach the writing? The thing is to find out what approach works for you. Tube 4's A was measured only at Time 0 and at the end of the experiment. The A of the no-light control was measured only at Time 0 and at the end of the experiment. Function: The function of the Results section is to objectively present your key results , without interpretation, in an orderly and logical sequence using both text and illustrative materials Tables and Figures.
The results section always begins with text, reporting the key results and referring to your figures and tables as you proceed. Summaries of the statistical analyses may appear either in the text usually parenthetically or in the relevant Tables or Figures in the legend or as footnotes to the Table or Figure.
Important negative results should be reported, too. Authors usually write the text of the results section based upon the sequence of Tables and Figures. Style: Write the text of the Results section concisely and objectively.
The passive voice will likely dominate here, but use the active voice as much as possible. Use the past tense. Avoid repetitive paragraph structures. Do not interpret the data here. The transition into interpretive language can be a slippery slope.
In contrast, this example strays subtly into interpretation by referring to optimality a conceptual model and tieing the observed result to that idea: The results of the germination experiment Fig. For published articles, other people who made substantial contributions to the work are also listed as authors.
An abstract, or summary, is published together with a research article, giving the reader a "preview" of what's to come. Such abstracts may also be published separately in bibliographical sources, such as Biologic al Abstracts.
They allow other scientists to quickly scan the large scientific literature, and decide which articles they want to read in depth. The abstract should be a little less technical than the article itself; you don't want to dissuade your potent ial audience from reading your paper.
Your abstract should be one paragraph, of words, which summarizes the purpose, methods, results and conclusions of the paper. It is not easy to include all this information in just a few words. Start by writing a summary that includes whatever you think is important, and then gradually prune it down to size by removing unnecessary words, while still retaini ng the necessary concepts.
Don't use abbreviations or citations in the abstract. It should be able to stand alone without any footnotes. Why is it interesting? The introduction summarizes the relevant literature so that the reader will understand why you were interested in the question you asked.
One to fo ur paragraphs should be enough. End with a sentence explaining the specific question you asked in this experiment. How did you answer this question? There should be enough information here to allow another scientist to repeat your experiment. Look at other papers that have been published in your field to get some idea of what is included in this section.
If you had a complicated protocol, it may helpful to include a diagram, table or flowchart to explain the methods you used. Do not put results in this section.
You may, however, include preliminary results that were used to design the main experiment that you are reporting on. Mention relevant ethical considerations. If you used human subjects, did they consent to participate.Present proper control experiments and statistics used, again to make the experiment of investigation repeatable. List the methods in the same college they admissions appear in the Results section, in the logical order in which you did the research: Description of the site Description of the surveys or experiments done, giving information on dates, etc. Description of the laboratory methods, including separation or treatment of law, analytical methods, following the order of waters, sediments kings biomonitors. If london have worked with different biodiversity components start from the essay i. In this section, avoid adding comments, results, and essay about service to god, which is a common error. The results should be essential for discussion.
It also lets the reader know broadly about the kinds of information and evidence that you will use to make your case in the paper. Department of Biology. At the end of the introduction, you want your reader to read on, and read on with interest, not with a sense of impending doom, or simply out of duty. Abstract An article primarily includes the following sections: introduction, materials and methods, results, discussion, and conclusion. The key is to summarize for the reader what is known about the specific research problem before you did your analysis.
You need to introduce the main scientific publications on which your work is based, citing a couple of original and important works, including recent review articles. I haven't read the paper but I suspect there is something special about these properties, otherwise why would you be reporting them?
In the text, you must cite all the scientific publications on which your work is based. However, the abstracts must be keep as brief as possible. Highlight the most significant results, but don't just repeat what you've written in the Results section. Now, it is easier since to avoid these problem, because there are many available tools. In the text, cite the literature in the appropriate places: Scarlet thought that the gene was present only in yeast, but it has since been identified in the platypus Indigo and Mauve, and wombat Magenta, et al.
NOTE: For laboratory studies you need not report the date and location of the study UNLESS it is necessary information for someone to have who might wish to repeat your work or use the same facility.
I used solutions in various concentrations. You may do further experiments, derivations, or simulations.
Just remember that the most important thing to get sorted at the start is the road map, because that will help you write rest of the paper. Never ignore work in disagreement with yours, in turn, you must confront it and convince the reader that you are correct or better. Look at other papers that have been published in your field to get some idea of what is included in this section. This part of your introduction should not represent a comprehensive literature review--that comes next. Use them sparingly. If you find yourself repeating lots of information about the experimental design when describing the data collection procedure s , likely you can combine them and be more concise.
How do these results relate to the original question? Here's a good example on a short abstract. What did we know about this topic before I did this study? Expressions such as "novel," "first time," "first ever," and "paradigm-changing" are not preferred.
All materials have properties of all varieties. Here are some additional tips for the introduction: Never use more words than necessary be concise and to-the-point. Less food can't count numbers of food Fewer animals can count numbers of animals A large amount of food can't count them A large number of animals can count them The erythrocytes, which are in the blood, contain hemoglobin. Key Elements of the Research Proposal. Do the data support your hypothesis?
All materials have properties of all varieties. Writing an Introduction. This is a big ask. Statistical rules Indicate the statistical tests used with all relevant parameters: e. If a research problem requires a substantial exploration of the historical context, do this in the literature review section. Use strong verbs instead of "to be" Instead of: The enzyme was found to be the active agent in catalyzing