The transformation itself had been rapid, as most landlords and pirs had not switched allegiance until after The Western Punjab was home to a minority population of Punjabi Sikhs and Hindus up to apart from the Muslim majority. Both the Muslim landed elite, waderas, and the Hindu commercial elements, banias, collaborated in oppressing the predominantly Muslim peasantry of the British Indian province of Sind who were economically exploited.
Consequentially, a thousand members of the Muslim League were imprisoned. Eventually, due to panic the government restored the mosque to Muslims. Syed left the All India Muslim League in the mids and his relationship with Jinnah never improved, the overwhelming majority of Sindhi Muslims supported the creation of Pakistan, seeing in it their deliverance. Here the Congress and Pashtun nationalist leader Abdul Ghaffar Khan had considerable support for the cause of the united India.
The secular Pashtun leadership was also of the view that if joining India was not an option then they should espouse the cause of an independent ethnic Pashtun state rather than Pakistan. Accusations of molesting Muslim women were levelled at Hindu shopkeepers in Nowshera , a town where anti-Hindu sermons were delivered by maullas. Tensions also rose in over the abduction of a Hindu girl in Bannu. Such controversies stirred up anti-Hindu sentiments amongst the province's Muslim population.
The referendum was held on 2 July while polling began on 6 July and the referendum results were made public on 20 July According to the official results, there were , registered voters out of which , During British rule in India, Baluchistan was under the rule of a Chief Commissioner and did not have the same status as other provinces of British India. The Muslim League under Muhammad Ali Jinnah in the period strived to introduce reforms in Baluchistan to bring it on par with other provinces of British India.
Apart from the pro-separatist Muslim League that was led by a non-Baloch and non-Sardar, "three pro-Congress parties were still active in Balochistan's politics", such as the Anjuman-i-Watan Baluchistan , which favoured a united India.
The province's Shahi Jirga and the non-official members of the Quetta Municipality opted for Pakistan unanimously on 29 June Following the partition of Bengal , violence erupted in the region, which was mainly contained to Kolkata and Noakhali.
One theory suggested that the flight was shot down by a plane, not by a ground-to-air missile. Pravda, a digital news platform based in Russia, in fact, published a story based on the same theory. Titled MH some conclusions — did Nato try to murder Putin? No matter how outlandish these theories sound, they served their purpose successfully. Fake news with nationalistic messages are being very eagerly shared and propagated in India, according to a recent BBC research, even when people know they are not genuine.
The need to accentuate national identity is certainly taking precedence over the need to fact-check. Propaganda also does not always need to have a political and geostrategic agenda. Earlier this year, a video surfaced on social media discouraging people from getting their children vaccinated against polio.
Bill Gates, along with Melinda Gates, is working towards ending polio from the world. Several other videos targeting polio vaccination are also available on YouTube and have been viewed thousands of times.
In March this year, for instance, daily Dawn reported from Nawabshah, a city in central Sindh, that a video was being circulated there which showed someone claiming that polio vaccine was killing children.
When officials of the Pakistan Telecommunication Authority PTA , that regulates internet in the country, investigated the origin of the video, they found out that the footage and the voiceover were done separately. The promoters of the video had curated some random footage and then dubbed it with their own message. These anti-vaccination videos have resulted in a dramatic increase in refusals by parents to let their children receive anti-polio drops even in areas where there was no history of such refusals — such as Dadu district in Sindh.
A report by the British daily Telegraph claimed as many as 70, refusals were reported from different parts of Pakistan in May this year alone. The narratives being pushed online are certainly influencing public perceptions offline. The screenshot, as well as its contents, were soon revealed to be fake. The ISPR had issued no such statement.
Earlier, in June this year, a screenshot of a Facebook post by Dawn. Its contents wanted people to believe that Afghanistan had finally accepted the British-era Durand Line as its official border with Pakistan. The image included so many defining elements from Dawn. Like many other social media users, the Afghans assumed that the post was legitimate. It was not. Its content was manufactured and its layout doctored. Such fake screenshots of news media outlets mostly emerge on Facebook which has a broad user base as opposed to Twitter where users are mostly, if not entirely, politically-engaged.
The latter are more likely to detect the doctoring — and sooner — than the former. Detection is still never as swift as the spread of the propaganda. The Internet and social media are expanding at such a breakneck pace that fake news and misinformation seem to be travelling at the speed of light. Roughly million tweets are sent each day and nearly seven hours of footage is uploaded on YouTube every second in 76 languages, say Emerson T Brooking and P W Singer who work with New America, previously the New America Foundation, a non-profit research organisation based in Washington DC.
Data for Pakistan suggests a similarly deep penetration of the Internet. According to PTA, there are 62 million subscribers of high speed broadband Internet in the country.
Technological advances, meanwhile, are making the detection of manipulation even harder. Run a video at a higher, or lower, than its actual speed and it may suggest something that did not take place at all. The most famous recent video with an allegedly changed speed shows a CNN reporter Jim Acosta trying to retain a microphone to ask American President Donald Trump a question during a press conference at the White House.
The CNN has accused the Trump administration of doctoring the video to suggest that Acosta touched a White House intern inappropriately as she approached him to take the microphone away. Also consider a picture of foreign minister Shah Mehmood Qureshi, circulated on social media on October 1 this year, showing him receiving a standing ovation at the United Nations General Assembly.
Prime Minister Imran Khan at the time was being criticised by leaders of opposition parties for not going to the General Assembly himself. Look at the respect for Foreign Minister in America because behind him is the lion — the truthful and trustworthy Prime Minister. A troll in ancient myths is an ugly creature that can be either a giant or a dwarf.
It lives in dark places — such as caves and caverns — waiting to snatch anything that can pass off as a quick meal. Lifewire, a technology website based in New York, defines an internet troll as a modern version of the same mythical character.
They hide behind their computer screens and go out of their way to cause trouble on the Internet. Like its mythical predecessor, an internet troll is both angry and disruptive — often for no real reason.
There are also liberal and leftist trolls as well as those who ostensibly claim to promote the cause of various ethnic and religious minorities. The trolls operate in swarms and act like bullies, collectively attacking anyone who opposes their views.
Also like bullies, they disperse as soon as they face a counter-attack. Most trolls have a large number of followers who generally share their personal and political views, and also ideologies. Trolls with their own pictures on their social media profiles are mostly based abroad. They are usually the ones to take the lead in picking and attacking a target. They either repeat the original attack or add more firepower to it.
If users of social media block one of these anonymous accounts, it is simply closed down and a new one is opened in its place immediately.
Some of these trolls have become quite known due to their involvement in numerous propaganda campaigns on social media. An analysis of 10 different hashtags, including BoycottBeaconHouse and 5thGenWar, which have promoted hyper-nationalistic contents recently, shows Farhan Virk as a part of all of them.
He is famous for initiating and promoting many nationalistic and pro-PTI Twitter trends in recent years. In an earlier interview with the Herald, Virk had explained how misinformation is put on technological steroids through hashtags.
For most of the hashtags initiated and promoted by him and his associates , the influencer a person with a large social media following is Zaid Hamid, one of the loudest exponents of various anti-Pakistan and anti-Islam conspiracy theories.
Another social media account always pushing these hashtags purportedly belongs to one Dr Aliya Kareem. She tweets with the handle draliya7 and her account, made in December , has 50, followers.
Her profile picture is that of a young woman standing behind what looks like an Imran Khan poster. Her profiles on Facebook and Instagram do not have the same photo. The Instagram profile has a low-resolution picture of a woman with her head tilted down. Her Instagram account describes her as a student of medicine who lives in Karachi and loves food and traveling. Kareem has sent out a total of , tweets as of November Countless other accounts similarly maintain an active online presence but do not leave any major traces about their real life existence.
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Botnets push the contents at very regular intervals — say, to send out five tweets each day — but human-bots exhibit random booms and bursts in their online activity, depending on whether and when they are required to carry out a campaign, he explains.
The Pakistan freedom movement united these disparate pieces of the national puzzle, and Pakistan was the expression of the national will of India's liberated Muslims. The remedy, according to him, lies in fact-checking. The resolution guaranteed protection for non-Muslim religions.
To do so, the Muslim League created the Masheikh Committee, used Urs ceremonies and shrines for meetings and rallies and encouraged fatwas urging support for the Muslim League. This makes it difficult for the authorities to come up with a clear procedure to take action against those involved in producing and promoting it. By , less than 20 per cent of those servicemen returning home had found employment. In recent weeks, however, it has suspended or blocked many accounts including the one operated by Khadim Hussain Rizvi, a pro-blasphemy law rabble rouser now in protective custody of the state. The irony is that its look-alike Twitter handle emerged just a few days later — with the same display picture, title and information as in the original. Bill Gates, along with Melinda Gates, is working towards ending polio from the world.
In recent weeks, however, it has suspended or blocked many accounts including the one operated by Khadim Hussain Rizvi, a pro-blasphemy law rabble rouser now in protective custody of the state. Between October 20 and November 16 this year, at least six hashtags trended on Twitter which directly targeted journalists and journalism in Pakistan. There are also no replies to the tweets that use propaganda hashtags, according to him. Reporting fake and baseless news on sensitive issues may lead to unrest among public and is a punishable crime under the Prevention of Electronic Crimes Act The link talked about menstruation.
The secular Pashtun leadership was also of the view that if joining India was not an option then they should espouse the cause of an independent ethnic Pashtun state rather than Pakistan. A vast majority of his 15, plus tweets — all focused on Pakistan — are either responses to other users or quote tweets that is, retweets with comments. It now depends on the perceived credibility of the source of the news, he says. Abuse and personal attacks are often meant to divert attention from real, substantive issues, according to Imaan Hazir Mazari, a YouTube blogger based in Vienna whose mother, Shireen Mazari, is the federal minister for human rights.
They will be in trouble if their reports or analyses fall on the wrong side of any of the three departments. It was not. It was part of a book written by a foreign author and published by the Oxford University Press, he says.