Changing organizational behavior requires changing the belief system of its personnel. This process of changing beliefs is called learning.
Participative management — An open form of management where employees have a strong decision-making role.
Participative management is developed by managers who actively seek a strong cooperative relationship with their employees. The advantages of participative management include increased productivity, improved quality, and reduced costs. PDCA cycle — Four-step process used in quality control and elsewhere as a simplified method of achieving improvements. These steps are: 1 Plan : determine what needs to be done, when, how, and by whom. Named after its proposer, the US mathematician Dr.
Walter Shewart Preventive maintenance — Systematic inspection , detection, correction , and prevention of incipient failures , before they become actual or major failures. Contrasted with corrective maintenance. They are formed by taking into account the quality concept.
With effective strategic quality planning efforts employees are taken as an input in developing the vision, mission, strategies, and objectives. This facilitates acceptance and support of strategic quality plans by the employees. Successful strategic quality planning efforts also take into account the possible side effects of the plan to the environment prior to the production. Strategic quality planning is positively associated with operational performance, inventory management performance, society results, customer results, and market performance.
However, strategic quality planning is not statistically related to perceived performance in the company, Thus Strategic quality planning is positively related to performance. Employee involvement refers to the regular participation of employees in the work process, suggestions for improvement, setting goals and monitoring the performance. So the organization makes a positive work environment that is based on trust, good customer service, teamwork and operational excellence, the ZYTEC leadership team has understand and invest in the needs of the most important stakeholders of the organization, and the employees.
The return of this it makes high levels of employee motivation, productivity, creativity and commitment that will help in the sustainable growth of the organization. This helps organization to learn how to implement the TQM philosophy in the working of their businesses. The process is a transformation of inputs by using operations and actions to quality outputs that the customer value. This core is surrounded by the commitment to quality Assurance of the quality message along with the need to change culture in the ZYTEC, which would add total quality.
Commitment to quality deals with the leadership aspect, being the basic step of the TQM implementation in the organization where all members are well committed to the goal.
Tools are the knowledge and techniques that are used for measurement, metrics and improvements. Systems are the set of activities; mostly the processing, communicating and controlling that should be applied to interact with the other activities in the organization.
These components are used together efficiently and effectively along with measurement of the performance; the ZYTEC achieved mission and goals successfully and have sustainable growth.
Suppliers help the company with the design process, due to which ZYTEC finds out about new materials, technologies and parts before its automakers. Over the years, suppliers are termed as partners and companies have a co-dependent relation with them as suppliers would not exist without the companies and the companies would fall without the suppliers.
As the company and its suppliers are now working as partners, there are values and norms they need to follow which would help them cultivate their relation for better returns. Company achieves high quality levels with profit, aim for supplier partnerships. Quality Results: Based on customer data and information, ZYTEC has defined, monitored, and improved most relevant customer performance measures on an ongoing basis.
Ultimately, the purpose of being in business is to stay in business. Benchmarking is encouraged to see how the company compares with its competitors. ZYTEC studied customer results, product and service results, financial and market results, workforce results, operational results, and public responsibility and citizenship results.
The process of continuous improvement is fundamental to the concept of TQM, ZYTEC believes that customers are the most important part of the production line therefore it is important develop operational and business processes which will ensure that the expectations of the customer have been met.
These critical elements in JIT are people involvement to gain support and agreement from all the individuals involved in the process, logistics network, to modify operational procedure, production or service system or organizational culture to take advantage of JIT.
JIT advantages include waste reduction, increased ability to remain competitive, improved working relations between employees, stronger and more reliable working relations with suppliers, higher profits and improved customer satisfaction. Implementation of JIT in the manufacturing unit of ZYTEC Company shifts it from an efficient manufacturer with extra 11 P a g e inventory to a manufacturer that is able to meet the demand of the customers and provide short lead-time.
The analytical tools are common to all quality efforts including Six Sigma. These tools consist of flowcharts, run charts, Pareto charts, histograms, check sheets, cause and effect diagrams and control charts.
The other tools, which are extensively used, are failure mode and effect analysis and design of experiments. Successful implementation of Six Sigma is a combination of personnel as well as technical methodologies. It is implemented in virtually every ZYTEC business category such as return on sales, return on investment, employment growth and stock value growth.
It is attentive to the entire business processes and training is integral to the management system where the top-down approach ensures that every good thing is capitalized and every bad thing is quickly removed.
At times implementing TQM may need huge financing and company would want to know if its efforts have given any results. These performance measures have a huge role to play in the success or failure of the company.
Some of the basic ways to know the performance of the ZYTEC can be seen by the level of employee interaction, improvement in teams, level of customer complaints, customer loyalty, reduction in defects, machine failure rates, quality performance by suppliers, relations with suppliers and customers, increase in revenue, sales, shareholder investors, etc. The seven categories are: 1. Leadership 2.
Strategic Planning 3. Customer focus 4. Measurement, Analysis and Knowledge Management 5. Human resource focus 6. Operations focus 7. Gone are the boom days when quality did not matter due to the volume of product available and the ease of obtaining products.
Customers are now demanding higher quality, and at a lower cost. In attempting to keep pace with the new attitude, a quality management system that helps keeps costs down is well worth implementing. These few organizations have planned to undergo a quality certification programs, or have already undergone the quality certification process, on the other hand generally in most of the organizations, quality management function within the organizations is extremely limited. The four steps in the cycle are exactly as stated.
First, plan carefully what is to be done. Next, carry out the plan does it. Third, study the results did the plan work as intended, or was the results different?
Using the knowledge learned, develop an improved plan and repeat the cycle. The PDSA cycle is a simple adaptation of the more elaborate problem solving method discussed in the next section. The phases are integrated because each phase is dependent upon the previous phase. Continuous process improvement is the objective, and these phases are the framework to achieve that objective.
It consists of three parts: identify the problem, form the team if one is not in existence and define the scope. Problems can be identified from a variety of inputs. One of the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award core values is managing by fact rather than by gut feeling. Managing an organization without performance measures is like a captain of a ship navigating without instrumentation. The ship would most likely end up traveling in circles, as would an organization.
Measures play a vital part in the success or failure of an organization. Determine which processes need to be improved. Indicate process gains and losses. Compare goals with actual performance. Provide information for individual and team evaluation. Ethics is different to different people, especially given an organizations international workforce and the verifying cultural norms. Because individuals have different concepts of what is right, the organization will need to develop the standards or code of ethics for the organization.
An ethical management program needs to address pressure, opportunity and attitude managing ethical requires commitment, new policies and procedures continues improvement and investments in appraisal, prevention and promotion.
The 1st step is appraisal, which is the analysis of the costs associated with unethical behavior. These costs can be divided into the three root causes of pressure opportunity and attitude. Cost of pressure are those costs from well-intended but unethical decisions made under pressure. They include but are not limited to errors, waste, rework, lost customers and warranties. Cost from opportunity are those costs from intentional wrongdoing.
They include but are not limited to theft, overstated expenses, excessive compensation and nepotism. Cost from attitude are those costs from mistaken beliefs in unethical forms of behavior. They include but are not limited to error, waste, rework lost customers and health care.
The 2nd step is prevention, which is the development of a system that will minimize the costs. Because management has a good idea of the appraisal costs the step can proceed concurrently. Pressure can be address by being involved in the development of goals and values and developing policies that allow for individual diversity, dissent and decision making input.
Associations that viable apply the total quality methodology to management are the ones most likely to accomplish organizational excellence. What is the Deming Cycle?
Deming cycle is a continuous quality improvement model consisting out of a logical sequence of four repetitive steps for continuous improvement and learning: Plan, Do, Check and Act. Plan: Design business process components to improve results. Do: Execution of the plan by taking small steps in controlled circumstances. Check: Checking the product to make sure it is produced according to the plan.
Act: take action to standardize or improve the process. What are the most common errors when starting quality initiatives? Some of the most common errors when starting quality initiatives are as follows: Senior management delegation and poor leadership organizations start a quality initiative by delegating responsibility to hire expert hired rather than applying the leadership necessary to get everyone involved. Team mania. However, working in teams is an approach that must be learned.
Rushing in and putting everyone in teams before learning has occurred and the corporate culture has changed will create problems rather than solve them.
General Mismanagement: General mismanagement and lack of management ability, skills and capability within the Sudanese organizations seriously affect the overall quality management function.
According to Azizi et al. To eliminate work that is wasted. Senior management has numerous responsibilities. Some of the basic ways to know the performance of the ZYTEC can be seen by the level of employee interaction, improvement in teams, level of customer complaints, customer loyalty, reduction in defects, machine failure rates, quality performance by suppliers, relations with suppliers and customers, increase in revenue, sales, shareholder investors, etc. The analytical tools are common to all quality efforts including Six Sigma.
Organizations that emphasize service never stop looking for and finding ways to serve their customers better, even if their customers are not complaining. Employee empowerment — Empowerment is the process of enabling or authorizing an individual to think, behave, take action, and control work and decision making in autonomous ways.