The first Deccani poet was Nizami. During the later part of this period and early Bhakti Kala, many saint-poets like Ramanand and Gorakhnath became famous. The earliest form of Hindi can also be seen in some of Vidyapati 's Maithili works.
Bhakti kaal c. Sadhukaddi was also a language commonly used, especially by Kabir in his poetry and dohas. This was also the age when Poetry was characterised under the various Rasas. Bhakti poetry had two schools — the Nirguna school the believers of a formless God or an abstract name and the Saguna school the believers of a God with attributes and worshippers of Vishnu's incarnations.
Kabir and Guru Nanak belong to the Nirguna school, and their philosophy was greatly influenced by the Advaita Vedanta philosophy of Adi Sankaracharya. The Saguna school was represented by mainly Vaishnava poets like Surdas , Tulsidas and others and was a logical extension of the Dvaita and Vishishta Advaita Philosophy propounded by the likes of Madhavacharya etc.
This school was chiefly Vaishnava in orientation as in seen in the main compositions like Ramacharitamanas , Sur Saravali , Sur Sagar extoling Rama and Krishna. This was also the age of tremendous integration between the Hindu and the Islamic elements in the Arts with the advent of many Muslim Bhakti poets like Abdul Rahim Khan-I-Khana who was a court poet to Mughal emperor Akbar and was a great devotee of Krishna.
The Nirgun School of Bhakti Poetry was also tremendously secular in nature and its propounders like Kabir and Guru Nanak had a large number of followers irrespective of caste or religion. Riti-kavya kal c. This era is called Riti meaning 'procedure' because it was the age when poetic figures and theory were developed to the fullest.
But this emphasis on poetry theory greatly reduced the emotional aspects of poetry—the main characteristic of the Bhakti movement—and the actual content of the poetry became less important. Although most Reeti works were outwordly related to Krishna Bhakti , their emphasis had changed from total devotion to the supreme being to the Shringar or erotic aspects of Krishna's life—his Leela, his pranks with the Gopis in Braj , and the description of the physical beauty of Krishna and Radha , Krishna's Consort.
The poetry of Bihari , and Ghananand Das fit this bill. The most well known book from this age is the Bihari Satsai of Bihari , a collection of Dohas couplets , dealing with Bhakti devotion , Neeti Moral policies and Shringar love. Both books came out in Chandrakanta , written by Devaki Nandan Khatri in , is considered the first authentic work of prose in modern Hindi. Adhunik kal c. The College president J. Gilchrist hired professors to write books in Hindustani.
A depiction of Surya in an book, Indrajalakala The Art of Magic ; Jwala Prakash Press, Meerut The person who brought realism in the Hindi prose literature was Munshi Premchand , who is considered as the most revered figure in the world of Hindi fiction and progressive movement. Before Premchand, the Hindi literature revolved around fairy or magical tales, entertaining stories and religious themes.
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