Order now Scientific Research Paper Writing a scientific research paper often has its own peculiarities. For instance, you must know and understand how this academic paper differs from a summary. Red, black, orange and light green DMC four-ply cotton embroidery floss was cut into 2. During each trial, twenty-five pieces of each color were separated and spread out over the floor of the colony. After the birds had been exposed to the material for a total of two hours, any remaining strands of floss on the floor were collected.
The number of strands of each color was counted. It was assumed all other strands not on the floor had been used in nest construction. Data from the three colonies were pooled and an X2 goodness-of-fit test was used to determine whether the number of strands of each color used in nest construction different from an expected ratio of which would indicate no preference.
The types of test materials used are described in detail, as are the methods. Description of methods includes assumptions made and type of analysis to be performed on the data. The author interprets the data for the reader in text form. For graphs, you should also label the x and y axes. Don't use a table or graph just to be "fancy".
If you can summarize the information in one sentence, then a table or graph is not necessary. Highlight the most significant results, but don't just repeat what you've written in the Results section. How do these results relate to the original question? Do the data support your hypothesis? Are your results consistent with what other investigators have reported? If your results were unexpected, try to explain why. Is there another way to interpret your results?
What further research would be necessary to answer the questions raised by your results? How do y our results fit into the big picture? End with a one-sentence summary of your conclusion, emphasizing why it is relevant. You can thank those who either helped with the experiments, or made other important contributions, such as discussing the protocol, commenting on the manuscript, or buying you pizza.
Here is one commonly used way: 1. Discussion In this section, you interpret your findings for the reader in relation to previous research and the literature as a whole.
Present your general conclusions, including an assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of the research and the implications of your findings.
Do not repeat the information you presented in the results or the introduction unless it is necessary for a discussion of the overall implications of the research. Conclusion This section is sometimes included in the last paragraph of the discussion. Explain how your research fits within your field of study, and identify areas for future research. Acknowledgments Write a brief paragraph giving credit to any institution responsible for funding the study e.
This section only needs to be a sentence or two long. References Here you list citation information for each source you used i. The list of references can be in alphabetical order author—date style of citation or in the order in which the sources are presented in the paper numbered citations.
Follow your style guide; if no guidelines are provided, choose a citation format and be consistent. Many citation styles use a hanging indent and may be alphabetized. Use the styles in Microsoft Word to aid you in citation format. Use EndNote , Mendeley , Zotero , RefWorks , or another similar reference manager to create, store, and utilize bibliographic information.
That is, if you have too much data to fit in a relatively short research paper, move anything that's not essential to this section. Before submission, check whether your journal allows for supplementary data, and don't put any essential information in this section.
Clinical Suggestion The purpose of this clinical commentary is to review types of integumentary wounds that may occur in sport, and their acute management. Open in a separate window Methods The methods section should clearly describe the specific design of the study and provide clear and concise description of the procedures that were performed.
The purpose of sufficient detail in the methods section is so that an appropriately trained person would be able to replicate your experiments. To assist in writing and manuscript preparation there are several checklists or guidelines that are available on the IJSPT website. Initially a brief paragraph should explain the overall procedures and study design. Within this first paragraph there is generally a description of inclusion and exclusion criteria which help the reader understand the population used.
Paragraphs that follow should describe in more detail the procedures followed for the study. A clear description of how data was gathered is also helpful. For example were data gathered prospectively or retrospectively? Who if anyone was blinded, and where and when was the actual data collected? Although it is a good idea for the authors to have justification and a rationale for their procedures, these should be saved for inclusion into the discussion section, not to be discussed in the methods section.
However, occasionally studies supporting components of the methods section such as reliability of tests, or validation of outcome measures may be included in the methods section. The final portion of the methods section will include the statistical methods used to analyze the data. Results, Discussion, and Conclusions In most journals the results section is separate from the discussion section.
It is important that you clearly distinguish your results from your discussion. The results section should describe the results only. The discussion section should put those results into a broader context. Again, be thoughtful about content and structure. Think carefully about where content is placed in the overall structure of your paper. It is not appropriate to bring up additional results, not discussed in the results section, in the discussion.
Thus, the discussion should not simply be a repeat of the results section. Carefully discuss where your information is similar or different from other published evidence and why this might be so. What was different in methods or analysis, what was similar? As previously stated, stick to your topic at hand, and do not overstretch your discussion!
One of the major pitfalls in writing the discussion section is overstating the significance of your findings 4 or making very strong statements. For example, Clinton et al. The complete list of authors will appear in the full citation at the end of your paper. The format of the References section varies slightly from one scientific journal to another. Use the following as examples for citing various kinds of sources in for this course Publication year. Article title.
Journal title volume: pages. Van Buskirk. Phenotypic design, plasticity and ecological performance in two tadpole species. American Naturalist Ahlberg, P. Glimpsing the hidden majority. Nature Epel, D. Activation of sea urchin eggs by a calcium ionophore. USA
Mastery of these skills would be an asset for any career that you may pursue.
Simply describe how the experiment was done: Six petri plates were prepared with agar and inoculated with the bacteria. In genetics studies include the strains or genetic stocks used. Results First mention whether experimental protocol actually worked e.
Thereafter, within each section, either the common name or the abbreviated scientific name can be used. Discussion Remind without sounding like you are reminding the reader of hypothesis and results, and quickly state whether your hypothesis was supported. Mention the individuals, companies, programs, and government agencies that have provided funding. You can benefit from writing good scientific papers, even if you do not expect to go on in Biology.
Here you will indicate what types of descriptive statistics were used and which analyses usually hypothesis tests were employed to answer each of the questions or hypotheses tested and determine statistical siginifcance. Make it interesting and easily understood without reading the whole article. How to write the methods section of a research paper.
NOTE: Very frequently the experimental design and data collection procedures for an experiment cannot be separated and must be integrated together. Journal title volume: pages. Results are typically not discussed much more in this section unless brief discussion aids clarity.
Excerpted from: Kanbe, T. Omit titles such as professor, Writing Associate, Mrs. How do these results relate to the original question? Do not present raw data! All of the birds used in this study have been exposed to grass, green embroidery floss and white dog fur in nests. They will think you have no sense of purpose.