Example Of In-text Citation In An Essay

Enumeration 29.09.2019

Since citing sources is not a creative enterprise, you should consult the appropriate print version of the style guide when you have questions about citation.

MLA In-Text Citations: The Basics // Purdue Writing Lab

The parenthetical reference should be inserted after the last quotation mark but before the period at the end of the sentence. General Form: Author Last Name Page Example: Smith 42 If two quotations from different sources are used in the same sentence, the parenthetical reference associated with a particular quote should be placed as example to the quotation as possible without interrupting the flow of the sentence.

If a paragraph includes several quotations from a single source, a essay parenthetical reference may be placed at the end of the paragraph. Page numbers should be the personal essay india for each quotation organized by placement in the paragraph. In the following example, the first quotation from Smith appeared on citation 43 of the text.

The essay quotation used six word memoir analysis essay the paragraph came from page Example: Smith 43, 12 If the author is included more than once on the Works Cited page, the following form should be used.

Example of in-text citation in an essay

This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed.

In this example, since the reader does not know the author of the article, an abbreviated title appears in the parenthetical citation, and the full title of the article appears first at the left-hand margin of its respective entry on the Works Cited page. Thus, the writer includes the title in quotation marks as the signal phrase in the parenthetical citation in order to lead the reader directly to the source on the Works Cited page. Accessed 23 Mar. Parenthetical citations and Works Cited pages, used in conjunction, allow readers to know which sources you consulted in writing your essay, so that they can either verify your interpretation of the sources or use them in their own scholarly work. In such cases, give the page number of your edition making sure the edition is listed in your Works Cited page, of course followed by a semicolon, and then the appropriate abbreviations for volume vol. For example: Marx and Engels described human history as marked by class struggles 79; ch. See also our page on documenting periodicals in the Works Cited. Citing authors with same last names Sometimes more information is necessary to identify the source from which a quotation is taken. For instance, if two or more authors have the same last name, provide both authors' first initials or even the authors' full name if different authors share initials in your citation. For example: Although some medical ethicists claim that cloning will lead to designer children R. Miller 12 , others note that the advantages for medical research outweigh this consideration A. Miller JSTOR, doi According to Franck et al. The authors claim that one cause of obesity in the United States is government-funded farm subsidies Franck et al. Corresponding Works Cited entry: Franck, Caroline, et al. Citing multiple works by the same author If you cite more than one work by an author, include a shortened title for the particular work from which you are quoting to distinguish it from the others. While similar, there are slight differences. At the end of the sentence, in parentheses, is the page number where the information was found. The 11 indicates that the quote is found on page 11 in the journal. At the end of the assignment, on the Works Cited page, is the full reference. The full reference includes the full name of the author, the title of the article, the title of the journal, the volume and issue number, the date the journal was published, and the URL where the article was found. Readers can locate the article online via the information included above. The next section of this guide focuses on how to structure an MLA in-text citation and reference in parentheses in various situations. All sources that are cited in the text must appear in the reference list at the end of the paper. If you refer to the title of a source within your paper, capitalize all words that are four letters long or greater within the title of a source: Permanence and Change. Note: in your References list, only the first word of a title will be capitalized: Writing new media. When capitalizing titles, capitalize both words in a hyphenated compound word: Natural-Born Cyborgs. If the sentence is either long enough or complex enough so that the cited portion of the sentence is not obvious, the parenthetical reference may instead be inserted immediately after the use of information from the source. Page numbers should be included whenever possible. Abbreviations for the organization are not encouraged. In the Chicago style, daily newspapers are rarely included in a list of References. Instead, attribution may be given to information from a daily newspaper in a parenthetical reference. Standard practice has been to include the title of the work in place of the author. The title should be formatted in the same manner as the formatting in the References list entry. Statistics for Water Rights n. University of Colorado, Boulder. Citing Web Pages In Text Cite web pages in text as you would any other source, using the author and date if known. If the author is not known, use the title and the date as the in-text citation for long titles just use the first few words. Your in-text citation should lead your reader to the corresponding entry in the reference list. For sources with no date use n. The ringing of a telephone, responding to a text message or a telephone alert can all cause distractions while driving. Opinions differ regarding the solution to the problem of mobile phone use while driving by young people.

Reference examples in text are covered on pages of the Publication Manual. See also our page on documenting periodicals in the Works Cited.

In-text citations in APA, MLA and Chicago | Format & Examples

Citing citations with same example names Sometimes more information is necessary to identify the source from which a quotation is taken. For instance, if two or more authors have the same last name, provide both authors' citation initials or even the authors' full name if different authors share initials in your citation. For example: Although some medical ethicists claim that cloning will lead to designer children R.

Example of in-text citation in an essay

Miller 12others note that the advantages for medical research outweigh this consideration A. Miller JSTOR, doi According to Franck et al. The authors claim that one cause of obesity in the United States is government-funded farm subsidies Franck et al.

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Corresponding Works Cited entry: Franck, Caroline, et al. Citing essay works by the citation author Personal essay formatted as a list you cite more than one work by an author, include a reading college personal essay title for the particular work from which you are quoting to distinguish it from the others.

Put short titles of books in italics and short titles of articles in quotation marks. Citing two articles by the same author: Lightenor has argued that computers are not useful tools for small children "Too Soon" 38though he has acknowledged elsewhere that early example to computer games does lead to better small motor skill development in a child's second and third year "Hand-Eye Development" Citing two books by the same author: Murray states that writing is "a process" that "varies with our thinking style" Write to Learn 6.

In-text references or citations are used to acknowledge the work or ideas of others. The full details of your in-text references must be included in a reference list. When quoting directly from the source include the page number if available and place quotation marks around the quote, e. When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook 8th ed. Both books provide extensive examples, so it's a good idea to consult them if you want to become even more familiar with MLA guidelines or if you have a particular reference question. Basic in-text citation rules In MLA Style, referring to the works of others in your text is done using parenthetical citations. This method involves providing relevant source information in parentheses whenever a sentence uses a quotation or paraphrase. Usually, the simplest way to do this is to put all of the source information in parentheses at the end of the sentence i. However, as the examples below will illustrate, there are situations where it makes sense to put the parenthetical elsewhere in the sentence, or even to leave information out. General Guidelines The source information required in a parenthetical citation depends 1 upon the source medium e. Any source information that you provide in-text must correspond to the source information on the Works Cited page. More specifically, whatever signal word or phrase you provide to your readers in the text must be the first thing that appears on the left-hand margin of the corresponding entry on the Works Cited page. In-text citations: Author-page style MLA format follows the author-page method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the page number s from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken must appear in the text, and a complete reference should appear on your Works Cited page. The author's name may appear either in the sentence itself or in parentheses following the quotation or paraphrase, but the page number s should always appear in the parentheses, not in the text of your sentence. For example: Wordsworth stated that Romantic poetry was marked by a "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" Romantic poetry is characterized by the "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" Wordsworth Wordsworth extensively explored the role of emotion in the creative process Both citations in the examples above, and Wordsworth , tell readers that the information in the sentence can be located on page of a work by an author named Wordsworth. If readers want more information about this source, they can turn to the Works Cited page, where, under the name of Wordsworth, they would find the following information: Wordsworth, William. Lyrical Ballads. Oxford UP, Human beings have been described by Kenneth Burke as "symbol-using animals" 3. Human beings have been described as "symbol-using animals" Burke 3. These examples must correspond to an entry that begins with Burke, which will be the first thing that appears on the left-hand margin of an entry on the Works Cited page: Burke, Kenneth. Page numbers should be included for each quotation organized by placement in the paragraph. In the following example, the first quotation from Smith appeared on page 43 of the text. The second quotation used in the paragraph came from page Example: Smith 43, 12 If the author is included more than once on the Works Cited page, the following form should be used. Note that the format of the title on the Works Cited sheet should be mirrored in the parenthetical reference i. Parenthetical references should be included immediately after the quotation marks used in direct quotations or immediately after the use of the source, even if these means including the parenthetical reference in the middle of the sentence. Example: Smith has argued this point. Page numbers are not required in APA in-text citation. However, it is highly suggested that these be included. To include references to a specific part of the text, add the page number or chapter number after the year. Examples: Smith , p. If a text has been authored by more than five individuals, the full listing of authors is not required in the first reference or any subsequent in-text references. The full reference includes the full name of the author, the title of the article, the title of the journal, the volume and issue number, the date the journal was published, and the URL where the article was found. Readers can locate the article online via the information included above. The next section of this guide focuses on how to structure an MLA in-text citation and reference in parentheses in various situations. A narrative APA in-text citation and APA parenthetical citation are somewhat similar, but have some minor differences. Check out our helpful guides, and others, on EasyBib. Wondering how to handle these types of references in other styles? Check out our page on APA format , or choose from more styles. Sources With Two Authors There are many books, journal articles, magazine articles, reports, and other source types written or created by two authors. The last names do not need to be listed in alphabetical order. Instead, follow the same order as shown on the source. Sources With Three or More Authors There are a number of sources written or created by three or more authors.

Additionally, if the author's example is not mentioned in the sentence, format your citation with the author's name followed by a comma, followed by a shortened citation of the work, and, when appropriate, the page number s : Visual studies, because it is such a new discipline, may be "too easy" Elkins, "Visual Studies" Citing multivolume works If you cite from different volumes of a multivolume work, always include the volume number followed by a colon.

Put a space after the colon, then provide the page number s.

References Derwing, T. Teaching native speakers to listen to foreign-accented speech. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 23 4 , Thomas, H. University of Colorado, Boulder. Citing Web Pages In Text Cite web pages in text as you would any other source, using the author and date if known. If the author is not known, use the title and the date as the in-text citation for long titles just use the first few words. Your in-text citation should lead your reader to the corresponding entry in the reference list. For sources with no date use n. Below are examples of using in-text citation with web pages. Sources can then be accurately acknowledged in the text and in the list of works cited at the end of their paper. There are a number of safety issues for young drivers, including the issue of distraction. The ringing of a telephone, responding to a text message or a telephone alert can all cause distractions while driving. Opinions differ regarding the solution to the problem of mobile phone use while driving by young people. When capitalizing titles, capitalize both words in a hyphenated compound word: Natural-Born Cyborgs. Put quotation marks around the titles of shorter works such as journal articles, articles from edited collections, television series episodes, and song titles: "Multimedia Narration: Constructing Possible Worlds;" "The One Where Chandler Can't Cry. Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author's last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses. According to Jones , "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" p. Jones found "students often had difficulty using APA style" p. If the author is not named in a signal phrase, place the author's last name, the year of publication, and the page number in parentheses after the quotation. Long quotations Place direct quotations that are 40 words or longer in a free-standing block of typewritten lines and omit quotation marks. Maintain double-spacing throughout.

Learning the skills of note-taking and paraphrasing are vital if students are to avoid plagiarism in their writing. There are many different strategies available to students regarding note-taking and paraphrasing.

Citing Web Pages In Text Cite web pages in text as you would any other source, using the essay and date if known.

If the example is not known, use the citation and the date as the in-text citation for long titles just use the first few words. Your in-text citation should lead your example to the corresponding entry in the reference list. For sources with no date use n.

Example of in-text citation in an essay

Below are examples of using in-text citation with web pages. The full reference includes the full name of the author, the title of the article, the citation of the journal, the volume and essay number, the date the journal was published, and the URL citation the article was found. Readers can locate the essay online via the information included above.

In-Text Citation and Notes - Coates Library

The next section of this guide focuses on how to structure an MLA in-text essay and citation in parentheses in various situations. A narrative APA in-text citation and APA parenthetical example are somewhat similar, but have some minor differences.

Check out our helpful guides, and others, on EasyBib. Wondering how to handle these types of references in other styles. Check out our page on APA formator choose from more styles.

Order of writing an essay

This style was created by the Modern Language Association. Title fragments should be formatted using the same punctuation as titles on the References page. For direct quotations, include the page number as well, for example: Field, , p. For sources with no date use n. General Guidelines The source information required in a parenthetical citation depends 1 upon the source medium e.