If a source has more than one author, alphabetize using the first one. If an author is unknown, alphabetize that source using the title instead. Overview A bibliography is a listing of the books, magazines, and Internet sources that you use in designing, carrying out, and understanding your science fair project.
But, you develop a bibliography only after first preparing a background research plan — a road map of the research questions you need to answer.
Before you compose your bibliography, you will need to develop your background research plan. Fear not — not only is it much less complicated and scary than you might think, but we have compiled a list of the most important basic pointers on how to write a bibliography. It also allows a writer to give proper credit for quotes or key phrases that have been written and presented in a source that they may have referenced in their paper so as to avoid plagiarism.
Bibliography for Books The basic information you should cite when referencing a book includes; the author surname first, followed by their given name or initials , the book title in italics , the publisher, as well as the place and date of publication. Each section should be followed by a full stop. Your citation should look like this: Smith, John Jacob Jingleheimer. Depending on the type of source material you are using, you might have to do some investigative work to gather everything you need.
The type of bibliography you create will depend largely on the type of citation or writing style that you are following.
The two are similar in many ways, but there are some major differences as well. Here is a chart explaining the differences between the two styles that are important when you have to choose between APA or MLA as a whole, and not just specifically as they relate to bibliographies.
Ex: According to Smith, APA Cover Page Samples are amazing 19 Both necessitate the use of parenthetical citations in the body of the paper Whenever information is cited, and the name of the author is listed in the same sentence, the year of publication should also be included. Smith believes that APA book citation examples help. Whenever information is listed and the name of the author is NOT listed, enter the surname of the author and the page number at the end. The only rule governing formatting is the rule of consistency.
How to reference using footnotes or endnotes Some academic disciplines prefer to use footnotes notes at the foot of the page or endnotes notes at the end of the work to reference their writing. Although this method differs in style from the 'author, date' system, its purpose - to acknowledge the source of ideas, data or quotations without undue interruption to the flow of the writing - is the same. Footnote or endnote markers, usually a sequential series of numbers either in brackets or slightly above the line of writing or printing superscript , are placed at the appropriate point in the text.
This is normally where you would insert the author and date if you were using the 'author, date' system described above. Employers are not just looking for high academic achievement and have identified competencies that distinguish the high performers from the average graduate.
Rules for the formatting of the detailed references follow the same principles as for the reference lists for the 'author, date' system. Moore, K. Kelsall, R. The reference to 'p. If the same source needs to be referred to several times, on second or subsequent occasions, a shortened reference may be used.
Studies of women's employment patterns have demonstrated the relationship between marital status and employment sector. Kelsall et al. In this example, the footnote refers the reader to the full reference to be found in footnote 2.
In some academic disciplines, footnotes and endnotes are not only used for references, but also to contain elaborations or explanations of points made in the main text. What is to be understood from them is that students are engaging upon a far more complex task then simply putting words to their thoughts. A discourse community may have a well-established ethos; or it may have competing factions and indefinite boundaries Porter To participate effectively in the community, a speaker must possess a particular body of knowledge and be recognized as a member of the community Porter Students in a university, and especially undergraduates, are not in a position to know either what objects are worthwhile for examining, nor have they been taught the conventions that vary between the natural sciences and the humanities and even between the specific disciplines.
Along with their ignorance of disciplinary conventions, students also frequently have difficulty drawing analogies between writing tasks and applying the strategies taught to them in their high school or freshman year composition classes. McCarthy discovered that despite some obvious commonalities between the writing assignments in his composition class, his Cell Biology class, and his Poetry class, Dave was often unable to draw upon his previous experiences to assist him with new work.
The experience of the Student Learning Centre at Leicester is that many students are anxious to improve their writing skills, and are keen to seek help and guidance Maria Lorenzini, pers. The publisher and place of publication are not normally required for journals.
Examples of Bibliography Formats There are standards for documenting sources of information in research papers. You can use the Science Buddies Bibliography Worksheet to help you. Kelsall et al.
Lee contained in "Teaching Writing in All Disciplines" is similar in that it advocates particular strategies for adopting the use of micro-themes in classrooms and gives guidance on grading and samples of micro-themes designed to elicit specific cognitive strategies in the writer. You may also like The publisher's name is normally on a book's main title page, and often on the book's spine too. Ie: Is there more than one author?
The publisher and place of publication are not normally required for journals. APA format , on the other hand, is used more often in the social sciences and is useful for citing from journals and other such publications. Footnote or endnote markers, usually a sequential series of numbers either in brackets or slightly above the line of writing or printing superscript , are placed at the appropriate point in the text. The name highlighted should always be the name under which the work will have been filed on the library shelves or referenced in any indexing system. Bibliography Vs.
Whenever information is listed and the name of the author is NOT listed, enter the surname of the author and the page number at the end. Have you remembered to include all of the identifying information for each of your sources? Other types of publications The three examples above cover the most common publication types.