Life as we know it is always different in different in places. However for the sake of learning we will be taking a look at some of the world most secluded places on this earth which will lead us across one of the world's largest ocean, the Atlantic, making our way to the continent of Africa This is where her research conflicts with other evidence of literacy. Technology of the nineteenth century made their development possible.
Steel, concrete and masonry materials have existed for a long time in the history of civilization but not in such a configuration. Masonry is the oldest material. Concrete in its present form is the youngest of these three basic structural materials of construction. Research shows that early societies used lime as a binding element in mortar Culture started changing from oral traditions into a literary culture as more people started to learn to read text and have access to printed words.
A major technological breakthrough that enabled mass accessibility to the printed word was the invention of the Gutenberg Press One example of this, is the orthodox narrative of modern human history shared by geologists and archaeologists around the world, which tells us that the first technologically advanced human civilizations started in Mesopotamia around 3,, BC. However, a series of evidence brought forth by two science skeptics and scientists suggest that the current narrative of our history could be inaccurate The oldest mathematical object was found in Swaziland Africa.
The oldest example of arithmetic was found in Zaire. The year old, Moscow papyrus, contains geometry, from the Middle Kingdom of Egypt, Egypt was the cradle of mathematics. The great Greek mathematicians, including Pythagoras, Thales, and Exodus all acquired much of their mathematics from Egypt, including the notion of zero. This paper will discuss a brief history of mathematics in Africa From the Phoenicians in Mesopotamia to the Mayans in Central America, technological advancements and complex theories drove the ancient civilizations ahead.
Great thinkers from that period like Socrates other great thinkers left huge marks on the literary world. Great scientists like Copernicus other great scientists developed theories that provided the foundations for more modern thought Unsurprisingly, with such social intrigue come media representations that further draw individual interests as has been seen through movies like The Pirates of the Caribbean film series as well as young students who seek basic knowledge through the written word.
As a child, there are many novelettes created by a variety of authors and companies to provide basic scholarly background information concerning a variety of subjects Odysseus is the king of the kingdom of Ithaca who had to embark on a 20 year ocean voyage back to his home. The Roman Empire existed throughout a hundreds-years timeline, officially since 27 BC under the reign of Emperor Augustus.
In this period, these events happened orderly, from the rise of Rome in the Italian peninsula that led to creating the Roman republic, the conflicts with the Carthage Empire, the conquest of the Mediterranean and it ended with the fall of the Roman Republic The first homo sapiens to appear in the fertile land of East Africa were nurtured from her bosom; the wisdom and strength that is characteristic of the black woman today is not a recent acquisition but qualities that were honed over thousand of years.
Every woman on this earth has mitochondrial DNA mitochondrial DNA is the DNA transferred from mother to child and the only genetic material that stands the test of time from Lucy, the small black woman found in the Awash Valley in Ethiopia In his remarkably detailed account, Josephus describes the exquisiteness and majesty of the harbor of Sebastos in the city of Caesarea Maritima.
The harbor was built with such genius and beauty that, despite the complexity of the landscape, the structure seemed effortless The country of France originally known by the name of Gaul or Gallia is a country with a rich history and culture. The Celts originally occupied and dominated that lands of Gaul. He won a decisive victory over the Celtic tribes that once dominated the area. This area became the first province of the Roman Empire Lisbon, the capital city of Portugal, has a rich Portuguese culture and history, so there is almost always somewhere to visit or something to eat to fill your senses and the food will top your experience and making Lisbon truly great.
If you are bored, museums, clubs, historic sites and many more are at your fingertips to enjoy and visit These ships were the main naval vessel of the Scandinavians.
However, cuneiform writing did not disappear as soon as alphabetic writing became available. It survived for many centuries because the scribes considered it superior for expressing shades of thought and of language. Hieroglyphic writing The origin of the hieroglyphic writing was nearly contemporary to the cuneiform one. It did not evolve in the cuneiform structure, but it kept a pictographic representation of the signs.
Probably, this was due to the fact the Egyptians did not use clay as a support for writing, but papyrus, wood and rock walls such as those of the temples. During its evolution, the hieroglyphic writing was influenced by the Sumerians, but it developed in a completely original way. Its symbols were derived from objects of the Egyptian world and often they were represented sideways. Unlike the Sumerian writing, which for a long time was used in account documents only, very soon the Egyptian one was used for writing, so the Egyptians started using the sheer writing long before the Sumerians.
As the Sumerians did, the Egyptians used pictograms to indicate objects and other to represent sounds. The Egyptian language was not exactly Semitic, but when they wrote Egyptians used mainly the consonants.
According to the number of the consonants they represented, the phonograms have been separated into four-letter, three-letter, two-letter and one-letter. In virtue of the wide use of these phonograms, the hieroglyphic writing was by the most part phonetic. Later on, the phonograms made up of only one letter were called "alphabetic signs". From the beginning, the Egyptians had the letters of the alphabet and they commonly used these signs among the others.
They would have been allowed to use a writing purely alphabetic at once, but they did not it because they always preferred to use the rich inventory of hieroglyphs they were provided. By using phonograms, pictograms and determinatives, the hieroglyphic writing too was a mixed writing.
The term hieroglyph is Greek and it means sacred writing, in fact for the Egyptians the writing was divine. If you think that when we are reading we hear a voice in our mind, you can well imagine how this surprising phenomenon could be considered divine in those times. For the Egyptians, the hieroglyphic scripts was sacred and its symbols kept the properties of the objects that they refer to, so they were alive, magical, they exerted an influence and a power of their own.
Egyptians were allowed to write the same things by choosing different symbols. By means of the mythological references which it was possible to find in the symbols they used, their writing was enriched with meanings and shades that it was not possible transmit or obtain from the alphabetic writing.
In principle, every word was made up of three parts: the first one was formed by phonetic signs or phonograms that suggested the pronunciation of the word, the second one which was often omitted was composed by a pictogram which represented the object, the third one was composed by a determinative that indicated the area topic of which they were speaking about. This determinative helped the right interpretation of the word, not just to indicate the end of it.
Figure 4 - Pupils of a school of scribes. Perhaps they were intent on writing something down as a dictation. The hieroglyphic writing was at the same time phonetic, figurative and symbolic. Often the Egyptians fused scenes of life of the Pharaoh or even of ordinary people with the hieroglyphic writing, and in a very modern way writing and images trespassed on one another, enlightening each other.
The hieroglyphic writing was used from 3, BC until AD, so for nearly 4, years. In Figure 5, you can see an example of a hieroglyph. The first two signs are phonograms. The mouth like sign indicates R and the circular one indicates KH. However, much of our knowledge about the Phoenicians during the Iron Age ca.
For example, according to the Greek historian Herodotus, Phoenician sailors, at the request of the pharaoh Necho II r. The main natural resources of the Phoenician cities in the eastern Mediterranean were the prized cedars of Lebanon and murex shells used to make the purple dye. Phoenician artisans were skilled in wood, ivory, and metalworking, as well as textile production.
The Ionic variant evolved into the standard Greek alphabet, and the Cumae variant into the Latin alphabet , which accounts for many of the differences between the two. Occasionally, Phoenician used a short stroke or dot symbol as a word separator.
Please expand the section to include this information. By the middle of the Third Millennium B. The first writer in history known by name is the Mesopotamian priestess Enheduanna BCE , daughter of Sargon of Akkad , who wrote her hymns to the goddess Inanna and signed them with her name and seal. The myths of the people of Mesopotamia, the stories of their gods and heroes, their history, their methods of building, of burying their dead, of celebrating feast days, were now all able to be recorded for posterity.
So important was writing to the Mesopotamians that, under the Assyrian King Ashurbanipal BCE over 30, clay tablet books were collected in the library of his capital at Nineveh. Miles, 28 Because their goods were so highly prized, Phoenicia was often spared the kinds of military incursions suffered by other regions of the Near East.
For the most part, the great military powers preferred to leave the Phoenicians to their trade but that did not mean there was no envy on the part of their neighbors.
In the beginning, the Latin alphabet was composed of the capital letters only, but with ordinary use developed a cursive writing and in the Middle Ages lower case was introduced.