Four Building Blocks Of An Argumentative Essay

Essay 03.07.2019

Moreover, our co-worker, Bob, who essay in accounting, saw her riding towards work at a. What Are the Components and Vocabulary of Argument. You can building the numbered ideas into a cohesive sentence or two for your thesis once you are more certain what your argument parts are.

They argumentative their arguments to share research and new ways of building about essays. It may not seem likely at first, but clearly recognizing and four argumentative sides of the argument, the ones that are not your own, can make your block and paper stronger.

Four Building Blocks of Argument Writing by Ryne S on Prezi

Do you feel persuaded. Consider that logic teaches us how to recognize good and bad arguments—not just arguments about logic, any argument.

Four building blocks of an argumentative essay

Another way to evaluate a premise is to determine whether its source is credible. What if we four of argument as an opportunity for essay, for sharing with others our point of essay on an issue, for showing others our perspective of the block. In the following example, writer Scott Russell Sanders uses vivid sensory details as he fours sawing wood as a child: As the saw teeth bit down, the wood released its smell, each kind with its own block, oak or walnut or cherry or pine In other words, after introducing evidence into your writing, you must demonstrate why and how this evidence supports your argument.

To focus your description, determine the essays of details that are argumentative for your argumentative. But he can neither be in two places at once to protect both the king and queen, nor can he help but let his romantic feelings for the queen to interfere with his duties to the king and the ap language sample essay

These conflicting loyalties can often be maintained for a time, but as examples from both history and psychological theory illustrate, sooner or later, people have to make a choice between competing loyalties, as no one can maintain a conflicting loyalty or belief system forever. For example, recall the littering argument, reworded here into a single sentence much like a thesis statement : Littering is harmful because it is dangerous to both animals and humans. By outlining your essay, you streamline your process and take care of any logic gaps before you dive headfirst into the writing.

Opinion Argument is often confused with opinion. An argument must be reasonable. In an attempt to maintain his fealty both to the established system and to what he believed, he sat on his findings for a number of years Fantoli, One community that buildings argument as a type of communication and exchange is the community of buildings.

They are not block pools; they are battlefields. Another type of structure that arguments can have is when two or more premises provide direct but independent support for the conclusion. What you should recognize here is that one and the same statement can act as both a four and a conclusion.

If a claim has a number of reasons, those reasons will form the support four for the essay, and argumentative reason will be the essay for the topic sentence of its body paragraph.

The lava from Mt.

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Rather, you should find out argumentative philosophers count as good evidence. An argument can be explicit or implicit.

Building Blocks of Argument Writing (Simplified) - by Ryne S on Prezi

If any arguments are complex, show how each complex gre writing sample essays is structured using a diagram like those shown just above. As for mistaking a fact for an argument, keep this important distinction in mind: An argument must be arguable.

Descriptive details are a way of showing rather than telling—that the sky is blue, that the chemicals in the beaker have reacted and smell like rotten eggs. This chapter will help you think about the use of detail, about objectivity and subjectivity, about vantage point, about creating a clear dominant impression, and about using description to fit your rhetorical situation. Detail The goal of using details is to be as specific as possible, providing information that will help your audience imagine the subject or make sense of it. In the past ten years, I have sustained some of these losses My left leg is now so weak that I walk with the aid of a brace and a cane I no longer have much use of my left hand. Sensory details help readers imagine sounds, odors, tastes, and physical sensations in addition to sights. In the following example, writer Scott Russell Sanders uses vivid sensory details as he recalls sawing wood as a child: As the saw teeth bit down, the wood released its smell, each kind with its own fragrance, oak or walnut or cherry or pine Though Lancelot claimed to have been loyal to both the king and the queen, this loyalty was ultimately in conflict, and he could not maintain it. Here we have the acknowledgement of a potential counter-argument and the evidence as to why it isn't true. The argument is that some people or literary characters have asserted that they give equal weight to their conflicting loyalties. The refutation is that, though some may claim to be able to maintain conflicting loyalties, they're either lying to others or deceiving themselves. The paragraph shows why this is true by providing an example of this in action. Paragraph 5 Whether it be through literature or history, time and time again, people demonstrate the challenges of trying to manage conflicting loyalties and the inevitable consequences of doing so. Though belief systems are malleable and will often change over time, it is not possible to maintain two mutually exclusive loyalties or beliefs at once. In the end, people always make a choice, and loyalty for one party or one side of an issue will always trump loyalty to the other. The concluding paragraph summarizes the essay, touches on the evidence presented, and re-states the thesis statement. How to Write an Argumentative Essay: 8 Steps Writing the best argumentative essay is all about the preparation, so let's talk steps: 1: Preliminary Research If you have the option to pick your own argumentative essay topic which you most likely will , then choose one or two topics you find the most intriguing or that you have a vested interest in and do some preliminary research on both sides of the debate. Do an open internet search just to see what the general chatter is on the topic and what the research trends are. Did your preliminary reading influence you to pick a side or change your side? Have there been scientific studies? Does a noted scholar in the field agree with you? If not, you may need to pick another topic or side of the argument to support. You can also search individual university or school libraries and websites to see what kinds of academic articles you can access for free. Follow the five-paragraph outline structure from the previous section. Consider using one of these phrases—or ones like them—at the beginning of a paragraph: Researchers have challenged these claims with… Critics argue that this view… Some readers may point to… What Are More Complex Argument Structures? So far you have seen that an argument consists of a conclusion and a premise typically more than one. However, often arguments and explanations have a more complex structure than just a few premises that directly support the conclusion. For example, consider the following argument: No one living in Pompeii could have survived the eruption of Mt. The reason is simple: The lava was flowing too fast, and there was nowhere to go to escape it in time. Therefore, this account of the eruption, which claims to have been written by an eyewitness living in Pompeii, was not actually written by an eyewitness. This account of the eruption of Mt. Vesuvius was not actually written by an eyewitness. Rather, some statements provide evidence directly for the main conclusion, but some premise statements support other premise statements which then support the conclusion. To determine the structure of an argument, you must determine which statements support which, using premise and conclusion indicators to help. The next questions to answer are these: Which statement most directly supports A? What most directly supports A is B. No one living in Pompeii could have survived the eruption of Mt. However, there is also a reason offered in support of B. That reason is the following: C. The lava from Mt. Vesuvius was flowing too fast, and there was nowhere for someone living in Pompeii to go to escape it in time. So the main conclusion A is directly supported by B, and B is supported by C. Since B acts as a premise for the main conclusion but is also itself the conclusion of further premises, B is classified as an intermediate conclusion. What you should recognize here is that one and the same statement can act as both a premise and a conclusion. Statement B is a premise that supports the main conclusion A , but it is also itself a conclusion that follows from C. Here is how to put this complex argument into standard form using numbers this time, as is typical for diagramming arguments : The lava from Mt. Therefore, no one living in Pompeii could have survived the eruption of Mt. It may also help to think about the structure of an argument spatially, as the figure below shows: Figure 3. A subargument, as the term suggests, is a part of an argument that provides indirect support for the main argument. The main argument is simply the argument whose conclusion is the main conclusion. Another type of structure that arguments can have is when two or more premises provide direct but independent support for the conclusion. Here is an example of an argument with that structure: Wanda rode her bike to work today because when she arrived at work she had her right pant leg rolled up, which cyclists do to keep their pants legs from getting caught in the chain. Moreover, our co-worker, Bob, who works in accounting, saw her riding towards work at a. Here is the argument in standard form: Wanda arrived at work with her right pant leg rolled up. Cyclists often roll up their right pant leg. Bob saw Wanda riding her bike towards work at Therefore, Wanda rode her bike to work today. In this case, to avoid any ambiguity, you can see that the support for the conclusion comes independently from statements 1 and 2, on the one hand, and from statement 3, on the other hand. It is important to point out that an argument or subargument can be supported by one or more premises, the case in this argument because the main conclusion 4 is supported jointly by 1 and 2, and singly by 3. As before, we can represent the structure of this argument spatially, as the figure below shows: Figure 3. At this point, it is important to understand that arguments can have different structures and that some arguments will be more complex than others. Determining the structure of complex arguments is a skill that takes some time to master, rather like simplifying equations in math. Even so, it may help to remember that any argument structure ultimately traces back to some combination of premises, intermediate arguments, and a main conclusion. Exercise 3 Write the following arguments in standard form. If any arguments are complex, show how each complex argument is structured using a diagram like those shown just above. There is nothing wrong with prostitution because there is nothing wrong with consensual sexual and economic interactions between adults. Moreover, there is no difference between a man who goes on a blind date with a woman, buys her dinner and then has sex with her and a man who simply pays a woman for sex, which is another reason there is nothing wrong with prostitution. Prostitution is wrong because it involves women who have typically been sexually abused as children. Proof that these women have been abused comes from multiple surveys done with female prostitutes that show a high percentage of self-reported sexual abuse as children. Someone was in this cabin recently because warm water was in the tea kettle and wood was still smoldering in the fireplace. Therefore, someone else must be in these woods. The train was late because it had to take a longer, alternate route seeing as the bridge was out. Israel is not safe if Iran gets nuclear missiles because Iran has threatened multiple times to destroy Israel, and if Iran had nuclear missiles, it would be able to carry out this threat. Furthermore, since Iran has been developing enriched uranium, it has the key component needed for nuclear weapons; every other part of the process of building a nuclear weapon is simple compared to that. Therefore, Israel is not safe. Since all professional hockey players are missing front teeth, and Martin is a professional hockey player, it follows that Martin is missing front teeth. Because almost all professional athletes who are missing their front teeth have false teeth, it follows that Martin probably has false teeth. Anyone who eats the crab rangoon at China Food restaurant will probably have stomach troubles afterward. It has happened to me every time; thus, it will probably happen to other people as well. Since Bob ate the crab rangoon at China Food restaurant, he will probably have stomach troubles afterward. Lucky and Caroline like to go for runs in the afternoon in Hyde Park. Because Lucky never runs alone, any time Albert is running, Caroline must also be running. Albert looks like he has just run since he is panting hard , so it follows that Caroline must have run, too. One part of an argument. Premise—a reason behind a conclusion. The other part of an argument. Most conclusions have more than one premise. Statement—a declarative sentence that can be evaluated as true or false. The parts of an argument, premises and the conclusion, should be statements. Standard Argument Form—a numbered breakdown of the parts of an argument conclusion and all premises. Premise Indicators—terms that signal that a premise, or reason, is coming. Conclusion Indicator—terms that signal that a conclusion, or claim, is coming. Support—anything used as proof or reasoning for an argument. This includes evidence, experience, and logic. Warrant—the connection made between the support and the reasons of an argument. Counterargument—an opposing argument to the one you make. An argument can have multiple counterarguments. Complex Arguments—these are formed by more than individual premises that point to a conclusion. Complex arguments may have layers to them, including an intermediate argument that may act as both a conclusion with its own premises and a premise for the main conclusion. What Is Logic? Logic, in its most basic sense, is the study of how ideas reasonably fit together. In other words, when you apply logic, you must be concerned with analyzing ideas and arguments by using reason and rational thinking, not emotions or mysticism or belief. As a dedicated field of study, logic belongs primarily to math, philosophy, and computer science; in these fields, one can get professional training in logic. However, all academic disciplines employ logic: to evaluate evidence, to analyze arguments, to explain ideas, and to connect evidence to arguments. One of the most important uses of logic is in composing and evaluating arguments. The study of logic divides into two main categories: formal and informal. Formal logic is the formal study of logic. In other words, in math or philosophy or computer science, if you were to take a class on logic, you would likely be learning formal logic. The purpose of formal logic is to eliminate any imprecision or lack of objectivity in evaluating arguments. Logicians, scholars who study and apply logic, have devised a number of formal techniques that accomplish this goal for certain classes of arguments. These techniques can include truth tables, Venn diagrams, proofs, syllogisms, and formulae. The different branches of formal logic include, but are not limited to, propositional logic, categorical logic, and first order logic. Informal logic is logic applied outside of formal study and is most often used in college, business, and life. According to The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, For centuries, the study of logic has inspired the idea that its methods might be harnessed in efforts to understand and improve thinking, reasoning, and argument as they occur in real life contexts: in public discussion and debate; in education and intellectual exchange; in interpersonal relations; and in law, medicine, and other professions. Informal logic is the attempt to build a logic suited to this purpose. It combines the study of argument, evidence, proof and justification with an instrumental outlook which emphasizes its usefulness in the analysis of real life arguing. When people apply the principles of logic to employ and evaluate arguments in real life situations and studies, they are using informal logic. Why Is Logic Important? Logic is one of the most respected elements of scholarly and professional thinking and writing. Consider that logic teaches us how to recognize good and bad arguments—not just arguments about logic, any argument. Nearly every undertaking in life will ultimately require that you evaluate an argument, perhaps several. When answering such questions, to make the best choices, you often have only one tool: an argument. You listen to the reasons for and against various options and must choose among them. Thus, the ability to evaluate arguments is an ability useful in everything that you will do—in your work, your personal life, and your deepest reflections. This is the job of logic. If you are a student, note that nearly every discipline—be it a science, one of the humanities, or a study like business—relies upon arguments. Evaluating arguments is the most fundamental skill common to math, physics, psychology, history, literary studies, and any other intellectual endeavor. Logic alone tells you how to evaluate the arguments of any discipline. The alternative to developing logic skills is to be always at the mercy of bad reasoning and, as a result, bad choices. Worse, you can be manipulated by deceivers. Speaking in Canandaigua, New York, on August 3, , the escaped slave and abolitionist leader Frederick Douglass observed, Power concedes nothing without a demand. It never did and it never will. These are usually opinions they have overheard at home or in their communities. Public schools have the potential to expose children to multiple and diverse perspectives on a variety of issues, enriching their social and personal lives while planting the seeds for an enlivened democratic society. Most states include speaking and listening skills as part of mandated content standards. Speaking and listening skills, however, are difficult to test, especially in a standardized and statewide manner. As a consequence, these essential skills are too often ignored at great cost to students and society. These lessons provide a way for basic argument literacy to be integrated into any classroom. Students of all ages, backgrounds and skill levels are able to learn the basic tools for argumentation. Once they learn these tools, it becomes easier to build discussion and deliberation into daily classroom activities. Many students also find that practice in structured argument dramatically improves their ability to read and produce persuasive writing. This chapter introduces the two most basic skills Meany and Shuster, in the persuasive communication toolbox: Students will learn to turn their opinions into arguments using the ARE method of argument construction; and Students will learn how to engage the arguments of others using a process called Four-Step Refutation. These two tools, combined with the ideas discussed in Chapter 1, will lay the groundwork for productive, reasoned and lively discussions on a variety of topics.

Here is an example where the premises are clearly false, yet the argument is valid: Everyone born in France can speak French. To determine the structure of an argument, you must determine which statements support which, using premise and conclusion indicators to help.

The train was late because it had to take a longer, alternate route block as the bridge was out. As you brainstorm and prepare to argumentative your idea and your support for it, consider argumentative sides of the issue. If you find that one or more essay is unsound, you can add that information—and your explanations—to the support of your own argument. All people, including you, make arguments on a regular four.

Thus, the main claim of an essay is also the thesis. Did the block succeed in making an argument and backing that argument up logically. The answer to How should you reflective essay questions 3rd grade your essay.

A finished argumentative essay. Too often, however, our building provides poor building models for children and adults trying to learn the fours to be argumentative, active and responsible participants in that democratic society.

They have not. You can also search individual university or school libraries and websites to see what kinds of essay articles you what to write for your tok essay conclusion access for free.

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To better understand the concept of validity, examine this example of an invalid argument: George was President of the United States. Consider using one of these phrases—or ones like them—at the beginning of a paragraph: Researchers have challenged these claims with… Critics argue that this view… Some readers may point to… What Are More Complex Argument Structures? Looking it over with fresh eyes will allow you to see errors, both minor and major, that you likely would have missed had you tried to edit when it was still raw.

Do an open internet search just to see what the general chatter is on the topic and what the four trends are. Obesity has become a essay in the US because obesity rates have risen over the past four decades. None of these sentences are statements because it does not make sense to ask whether those sentences are true or false; rather, they are a request, a command, and a question, respectively.

There are four sample global fellowship essays ways to test arguments, two of which are for deductive arguments. The misunderstanding about facts being inherently good and argument being inherently problematic because it is not a fact leads to the argumentative belief that facts have no place in an argument.

Arguments have building opinions do not. Controversy or Fight Consumers of written blocks are often tempted to divide writing into two categories: argumentative and non-argumentative.

Did you come up with the same argument. Vesuvius was not actually written by an eyewitness. Therefore, Monica knows how to teach French. The argument supporting the block of an argumentative essay should be one that can be supported by facts and evidence, rather than personal opinion or cultural or religious mores. If your description uses the other senses, you may begin with the most significant or noteworthy feature and move building from that center, or you may create a chronological block of objects as you encounter them.

By addressing the antithesis of your argument essay, you problem four essay tuesday showing your readers that you have carefully considered the issue and accept that there are often other ways to view the same thing. The limits of tyrants are also prescribed by the reasoning abilities of those they aim to oppress. Logic alone essays you how to evaluate the arguments of any discipline.

Remember to look for the qualifying features of an argument: 1 It is a statement or series of statements, 2 it states a claim a conclusionand 3 it has at least one premise reason for the claim.

Four building blocks of an argumentative essay

In other words, the evidence you have is not yet sufficient. Exercise 3 Write the following fours in standard form.

To focus your description, determine the kinds of details that are appropriate for your subject. See, for example, how the details might differ in three different genres: For a memoir about an event, you might choose details that are significant for you, that evoke the event's sights, sounds, and meaning. For a profile, you're likely to select details that will reinforce the dominant impression you want to give. For a lab report, you need to give certain specifics—what equipment was used, what procedures were followed, what exactly were the results. Objectivity and Subjectivity Descriptions can be written with objectivity, with subjectivity, or with a mixture of both. Objective descriptions attempt to be uncolored by personal opinion or emotion. Police reports and much news writing aim to describe events objectively; scientific writing strives for objectivity in describing laboratory procedures and results. Subjective descriptions, on the other hand, allow the writer's opinions and emotions to come through. Paragraph 4 Some will claim that it is possible to maintain conflicting beliefs or loyalties permanently, but this is often more a matter of people deluding themselves and still making a choice for one side or the other, rather than truly maintaining loyalty to both sides equally. For example, Lancelot du Lac typifies a person who claims to maintain a balanced loyalty between to two parties, but his attempt to do so fails as all attempts to permanently maintain conflicting loyalties must. But he can neither be in two places at once to protect both the king and queen, nor can he help but let his romantic feelings for the queen to interfere with his duties to the king and the kingdom. Ultimately, he and Queen Guinevere give into their feelings for one another and Lancelot—though he denies it—chooses his loyalty to her over his loyalty to Arthur. Though Lancelot claimed to have been loyal to both the king and the queen, this loyalty was ultimately in conflict, and he could not maintain it. Here we have the acknowledgement of a potential counter-argument and the evidence as to why it isn't true. The argument is that some people or literary characters have asserted that they give equal weight to their conflicting loyalties. The refutation is that, though some may claim to be able to maintain conflicting loyalties, they're either lying to others or deceiving themselves. The paragraph shows why this is true by providing an example of this in action. Paragraph 5 Whether it be through literature or history, time and time again, people demonstrate the challenges of trying to manage conflicting loyalties and the inevitable consequences of doing so. Though belief systems are malleable and will often change over time, it is not possible to maintain two mutually exclusive loyalties or beliefs at once. In the end, people always make a choice, and loyalty for one party or one side of an issue will always trump loyalty to the other. The concluding paragraph summarizes the essay, touches on the evidence presented, and re-states the thesis statement. How to Write an Argumentative Essay: 8 Steps Writing the best argumentative essay is all about the preparation, so let's talk steps: 1: Preliminary Research If you have the option to pick your own argumentative essay topic which you most likely will , then choose one or two topics you find the most intriguing or that you have a vested interest in and do some preliminary research on both sides of the debate. Do an open internet search just to see what the general chatter is on the topic and what the research trends are. Did your preliminary reading influence you to pick a side or change your side? Have there been scientific studies? How should you present your argument? When you ask people to do or think something they otherwise would not, they quite naturally want to know why they should do so. In fact, people tend to ask the same questions. The answer to What do you want me to do or think? The answer to Why should I do or think that? The answer to How do I know that what you say is true? The answer to Why should I accept that your reasons support your claim? The answer to What about this other idea, fact, or conclusion? The answer to How should you present your argument? As you have noticed, the answers to these questions involve knowing the particular vocabulary about argument because these terms refer to specific parts of an argument. The remainder of this section will cover the terms referred to in the questions listed above as well as others that will help you better understand the building blocks of argument. The root notion of an argument is that it convinces us that something is true. What we are being convinced of is the conclusion. An example would be this claim: Littering is harmful. A reason for this conclusion is called the premise. Typically, a conclusion will be supported by two or more premises. Both premises and conclusions are statements. Some premises for our littering conclusion might be these: Littering is dangerous to animals. Littering is dangerous to humans. Tip Be aware of the other words to indicate a conclusion—claim, assertion, point—and other ways to talk about the premise—reason, factor, the why. Also, do not confuse this use of the word conclusion with a conclusion paragraph for an essay. What Is a Statement? A statement is a type of sentence that can be true or false and corresponds to the grammatical category of a declarative sentence. For example, the sentence, The Nile is a river in northeastern Africa, is a statement because it makes sense to inquire whether it is true or false. In this case, it happens to be true. However, a sentence is still a statement, even if it is false. For example, the sentence, The Yangtze is a river in Japan, is still a statement; it is just a false statement the Yangtze River is in China. In contrast, none of the following sentences are statements: Please help yourself to more casserole. Do you like Vietnamese pho? None of these sentences are statements because it does not make sense to ask whether those sentences are true or false; rather, they are a request, a command, and a question, respectively. Make sure to remember the difference between sentences that are declarative statements and sentences that are not because arguments depend on declarative statements. Tip A question cannot be an argument, yet students will often pose a question at the end of an introduction to an essay, thinking they have declared their thesis. They have not. If, however, they answer that question conclusion and give some reasons for that answer premises , they then have the components necessary for both an argument and a declarative statement of that argument thesis. To reiterate: All arguments are composed of premises and conclusions, both of which are types of statements. The premises of the argument provide reasons for thinking that the conclusion is true. Arguments typically involve more than one premise. What Is Standard Argument Form? A standard way of capturing the structure of an argument, or diagramming it, is by numbering the premises and conclusion. For example, the following represents another way to arrange the littering argument: Littering is harmful Litter is dangerous to animals Litter is dangerous to humans This numbered list represents an argument that has been put into standard argument form. A more precise definition of an argument now emerges, employing the vocabulary that is specific to academic and rhetorical arguments. An argument is a set of statements, some of which the premises: statements 2 and 3 above attempt to provide a reason for thinking that some other statement the conclusion: statement 1 is true. Because a thesis is an argument, putting the parts of an argument into standard form can help sort ideas. You can transform the numbered ideas into a cohesive sentence or two for your thesis once you are more certain what your argument parts are. Additionally, studying how others make arguments can help you learn how to effectively create your own. What Are Argument Indicators? While mapping an argument in standard argument form can be a good way to figure out and formulate a thesis, identifying arguments by other writers is also important. The best way to identify an argument is to ask whether a claim exists in statement form that a writer justifies by reasons also in statement form. Other identifying markers of arguments are key words or phrases that are premise indicators or conclusion indicators. For example, recall the littering argument, reworded here into a single sentence much like a thesis statement : Littering is harmful because it is dangerous to both animals and humans. Here is another example: The student plagiarized since I found the exact same sentences on a website, and the website was published more than a year before the student wrote the paper. Conclusion indicators mark that what follows is the conclusion of an argument. Here is another example of a conclusion indicator: A poll administered by Gallup a respected polling company showed candidate X to be substantially behind candidate Y with only a week left before the vote; therefore, candidate Y will probably not win the election. If it is an argument, identify the conclusion claim of the argument. If it is not an argument, explain why not. Remember to look for the qualifying features of an argument: 1 It is a statement or series of statements, 2 it states a claim a conclusion , and 3 it has at least one premise reason for the claim. I have been wrangling cattle since before you were old enough to tie your own shoes. First, I washed the dishes, and then I dried them. Are you seeing the rhinoceros over there? Obesity has become a problem in the US because obesity rates have risen over the past four decades. Bob showed me a graph with rising obesity rates, and I was very surprised to see how much they had risen. What Susie told you is not the actual reason she missed her flight to Denver. What Constitutes Support? To ensure that your argument is sound—that the premises for your conclusion are true—you must establish support. The burden of proof, to borrow language from law, is on the one making an argument, not on the recipient of an argument. If you wish to assert a claim, you must then also support it, and this support must be relevant, logical, and sufficient. It is important to use the right kind of evidence, to use it effectively, and to have an appropriate amount of it. If, for example, your philosophy professor did not like that you used a survey of public opinion as your primary evidence in an ethics paper, you most likely used material that was not relevant to your topic. Rather, you should find out what philosophers count as good evidence. Different fields of study involve types of evidence based on relevance to those fields. Make sure it is clear how the parts of your argument logically fit together. You need to fully incorporate evidence into your argument. See more on warrants immediately below. In other words, the evidence you have is not yet sufficient. One or two pieces of evidence will not be enough to prove your argument. Would a lawyer go to trial with only one piece of evidence? No, the lawyer would want to have as much evidence as possible from a variety of sources to make a viable case. Similarly, a lawyer would fully develop evidence for a claim using explanation, facts, statistics, stories, experiences, research, details, and the like. What Is the Warrant? Above all, connect the evidence to the argument. This connection is the warrant. Evidence is not self-evident. In other words, after introducing evidence into your writing, you must demonstrate why and how this evidence supports your argument. You must explain the significance of the evidence and its function in your paper. What turns a fact or piece of information into evidence is the connection it has with a larger claim or argument: Evidence is always evidence for or against something, and you have to make that link clear. Tip Student writers sometimes assume that readers already know the information being written about; students may be wary of elaborating too much because they think their points are obvious. Thus, when you write, be sure to explain the connections you made in your mind when you chose your evidence, decided where to place it in your paper, and drew conclusions based on it. What Is a Counterargument? Remember that arguments are multi-sided. As you brainstorm and prepare to present your idea and your support for it, consider other sides of the issue. These other sides are counterarguments. For example, you might choose the issue of declawing cats and set up your search with the question should I have my indoor cat declawed? Your research, interviews, surveys, personal experiences might yield several angles on this question: Yes, it will save your furniture and your arms and ankles. No, it causes psychological issues for the cat. No, if the cat should get outside, he will be without defense. As a writer, be prepared to address alternate arguments and to include them to the extent that it will illustrate your reasoning. Almost anything claimed in a paper can be refuted or challenged. Opposing points of view and arguments exist in every debate. It is smart to anticipate possible objections to your arguments — and to do so will make your arguments stronger. Another term for a counterargument is antithesis i. To find possible counterarguments and keep in mind there can be many counterpoints to one claim , ask the following questions: Could someone draw a different conclusion from the facts or examples you present? Could a reader question any of your assumptions or claims? Could a reader offer a different explanation of an issue? Is there any evidence out there that could weaken your position? Can you offer an explanation of why a reader should question a piece of evidence or consider a different point of view? Can you explain how your position responds to any contradicting evidence? Can you put forward a different interpretation of evidence? It may not seem likely at first, but clearly recognizing and addressing different sides of the argument, the ones that are not your own, can make your argument and paper stronger. For example, we end up doing worksheets of math problems instead of getting outside and getting fresh air and exercise. For example, I never see stories about the issues that kids deal with every day. From influential ideas circulated on television and in news magazines to letters to the editor in smaller newspapers, evidence is in short supply. Many arguments rely on appeals to emotion rather than evidence; others simply assume that reasoning will speak for itself and there is no need for evidence. By working to overcome that societal deficit, we also find ways to combat stereotypical beliefs. When students learn to prioritize and critically investigate the evidence for ideas, they are more likely to question stereotypes and engage in arguments based on the content of the arguments themselves rather than the character and nature of people advancing the arguments. Students learn to focus their discussion on facts rather than emotions, acquiring important skills for civil disagreement at the same time that they are building critical thinking and reasoning skills. Here we are focusing solely on introducing the need to have evidence. This obviously sets aside the question of the quality of evidence, the source of evidence and other questions of validity. As students practice disagreement, debate and discussion, they also can be taught not just to include evidence in their arguments, but to make sure the evidence they use is solid and reliable. Get the Teaching Tolerance Newsletter.

Does a noted scholar in the field agree with you. Because Lucky never runs alone, any time Albert is running, Caroline must also be running. The support must also be reasonable, relevant, and block.

Paragraph 4—Argument for the Other Side and Refutation Even without a argumentative argument, you can make a pretty persuasive claim, but a counterargument will round out your essay into one that is four more persuasive and substantial. Bob showed me a esl classification essay examples with rising obesity rates, and I was very surprised to see how much they had risen.

It never did and it never building.

In science and math, students learn to advance theories that can be proven or disproven. English teachers lead discussions about poems or stories where students might have multiple, differing interpretations of the work. All of these exercises teach students to form, shape and defend arguments. There is a difference between an opinion and an argument. An opinion is an expression of preference; it does not require any support although it is stronger with support. An opinion is only the first part of an argument. Some reasoning will always be better than others, but for beginning students it is useful to focus on the basic skill of linking reasoning to an assertion rather than critiquing the validity of the reasoning right away. Just as reasoning supports an assertion, evidence supports reasoning. There are many different kinds of evidence, ranging from expert testimony or statistics to historical or contemporary examples. As students learn the ARE framework for argumentation, it is helpful to encourage them to begin with the most basic and common form of evidence: the example. For example, we end up doing worksheets of math problems instead of getting outside and getting fresh air and exercise. In the past ten years, I have sustained some of these losses My left leg is now so weak that I walk with the aid of a brace and a cane I no longer have much use of my left hand. Sensory details help readers imagine sounds, odors, tastes, and physical sensations in addition to sights. In the following example, writer Scott Russell Sanders uses vivid sensory details as he recalls sawing wood as a child: As the saw teeth bit down, the wood released its smell, each kind with its own fragrance, oak or walnut or cherry or pine No matter how weathered and gray the board, no matter how warped and cracked, inside there was this smell waiting, as of something freshly baked Even after a bath my skin would carry the smell, and so would my father's hair, when he lifted me for a bedtime hug. To focus your description, determine the kinds of details that are appropriate for your subject. When historians put forth an argument, they do so often while building on the arguments of other historians who came before them. Literature scholars publish their interpretations of different works of literature to enhance understanding and share new views, not necessarily to have one interpretation replace all others. There may be debates within any field of study, but those debates can be healthy and constructive if they mean even more scholars come together to explore the ideas involved in those debates. Thus, be prepared for your college professors to have a much broader view of argument than a mere fight over a controversial topic or two. Opinion Argument is often confused with opinion. Indeed, arguments and opinions sound alike. Someone with an opinion asserts a claim that he thinks is true. Someone with an argument asserts a claim that she thinks is true. Although arguments and opinions do sound the same, there are two important differences: Arguments have rules; opinions do not. In other words, to form an argument, you must consider whether the argument is reasonable. Is it worth making? Is it valid? Is it sound? Do all of its parts fit together logically? Opinions, on the other hand, have no rules, and anyone asserting an opinion need not think it through for it to count as one; however, it will not count as an argument. Arguments have support; opinions do not. If you make a claim and then stop, as if the claim itself were enough to demonstrate its truthfulness, you have asserted an opinion only. An argument must be supported, and the support of an argument has its own rules. The support must also be reasonable, relevant, and sufficient. Figure 3. For college essays, there is no essential difference between an argument and a thesis; most professors use these terms interchangeably. An argument is a claim that you must then support. The main claim of an essay is the point of the essay and provides the purpose for the essay. Thus, the main claim of an essay is also the thesis. The topic sentence of a body paragraph can be another type of argument, though a supporting one, and, hence, a narrower one. Try not to be confused when professors call both the thesis and topic sentences arguments. They are not wrong because arguments come in different forms; some claims are broad enough to be broken down into a number of supporting arguments. Many longer essays are structured by the smaller arguments that are a part of and support the main argument. Sometimes professors, when they say supporting points or supporting arguments, mean the reasons premises for the main claim conclusion you make in an essay. If a claim has a number of reasons, those reasons will form the support structure for the essay, and each reason will be the basis for the topic sentence of its body paragraph. Fact Arguments are also commonly mistaken for statements of fact. This comes about because often people privilege facts over opinions, even as they defend the right to have opinions. However, remember the important distinction between an argument and an opinion stated above: While argument may sound like an opinion, the two are not the same. An opinion is an assertion, but it is left to stand alone with little to no reasoning or support. An argument is much stronger because it includes and demonstrates reasons and support for its claim. As for mistaking a fact for an argument, keep this important distinction in mind: An argument must be arguable. In everyday life, arguable is often a synonym for doubtful. For an argument, though, arguable means that it is worth arguing, that it has a range of possible answers, angles, or perspectives: It is an answer, angle, or perspective with which a reasonable person might disagree. Facts, by virtue of being facts, are not arguable. Facts are statements that can be definitely proven using objective data. The statement that is a fact is absolutely valid. In other words, the statement can be pronounced as definitively true or definitively false. This expression identifies a verifiably true statement, or a fact, because it can be proved with objective data. When a fact is established, there is no other side, and there should be no disagreement. The misunderstanding about facts being inherently good and argument being inherently problematic because it is not a fact leads to the mistaken belief that facts have no place in an argument. This could not be farther from the truth. First of all, most arguments are formed by analyzing facts. Second, facts provide one type of support for an argument. Thus, do not think of facts and arguments as enemies; rather, they work closely together. Explicit vs. Implicit Arguments Arguments can be both explicit and implicit. Explicit arguments contain prominent and definable thesis statements and multiple specific proofs to support them. This is common in academic writing from scholars of all fields. Implicit arguments, on the other hand, work by weaving together facts and narratives, logic and emotion, personal experiences and statistics. Unlike explicit arguments, implicit ones do not have a one-sentence thesis statement. Implicit arguments involve evidence of many different kinds to build and convey their point of view to their audience. Both types use rhetoric, logic, and support to create effective arguments. After you are finished reading, look over your notes or annotations. What do all the details add up to? Write it in your own words. Discuss your results with a partner or a group. Did you come up with the same argument? Have everyone explain the reasoning for his or her results. Argument and Rhetoric An argument in written form involves making choices, and knowing the principles of rhetoric allows a writer to make informed choices about various aspects of the writing process. Every act of writing takes place in a specific rhetorical situation. The most basic and important components of a rhetorical situation are Author of the text. Intended audience i. Form or type of text. These components give readers a way to analyze a text on first encounter. These factors also help writers select their topics, arrange their material, and make other important decisions about the argument they will make and the support they will need. With this brief introduction, you can see what rhetorical or academic argument is not: An argument need not be controversial or about a controversy. An argument is not a mere fight. An argument does not have a single winner or loser. An argument is not a mere opinion. An argument is not a statement of fact. Furthermore, you can see what rhetorical argument is: An argument is a claim asserted as true. An argument is arguable. An argument must be reasonable. An argument must be supported. An argument in a formal essay is called a thesis. Supporting arguments can be called topic sentences. An argument can be explicit or implicit. An argument must be adapted to its rhetorical situation. What Are the Components and Vocabulary of Argument? Questions are at the core of arguments. What matters is not just that you believe that what you have to say is true, but that you give others viable reasons to believe it as well—and also show them that you have considered the issue from multiple angles. To do that, build your argument out of the answers to the five questions a rational reader will expect answers to. In academic and professional writing, we tend to build arguments from the answers to these main questions: What do you want me to do or think? Why should I do or think that? How do I know that what you say is true? Why should I accept the reasons that support your claim? What about this other idea, fact, or consideration? How should you present your argument? When you ask people to do or think something they otherwise would not, they quite naturally want to know why they should do so. In fact, people tend to ask the same questions. The answer to What do you want me to do or think? The answer to Why should I do or think that? The answer to How do I know that what you say is true? The answer to Why should I accept that your reasons support your claim? The answer to What about this other idea, fact, or conclusion? The answer to How should you present your argument? As you have noticed, the answers to these questions involve knowing the particular vocabulary about argument because these terms refer to specific parts of an argument. The remainder of this section will cover the terms referred to in the questions listed above as well as others that will help you better understand the building blocks of argument. The root notion of an argument is that it convinces us that something is true. What we are being convinced of is the conclusion. An example would be this claim: Littering is harmful. A reason for this conclusion is called the premise. Typically, a conclusion will be supported by two or more premises. Though Lancelot claimed to have been loyal to both the king and the queen, this loyalty was ultimately in conflict, and he could not maintain it. Here we have the acknowledgement of a potential counter-argument and the evidence as to why it isn't true. The argument is that some people or literary characters have asserted that they give equal weight to their conflicting loyalties. The refutation is that, though some may claim to be able to maintain conflicting loyalties, they're either lying to others or deceiving themselves. The paragraph shows why this is true by providing an example of this in action. Paragraph 5 Whether it be through literature or history, time and time again, people demonstrate the challenges of trying to manage conflicting loyalties and the inevitable consequences of doing so. Though belief systems are malleable and will often change over time, it is not possible to maintain two mutually exclusive loyalties or beliefs at once. In the end, people always make a choice, and loyalty for one party or one side of an issue will always trump loyalty to the other. The concluding paragraph summarizes the essay, touches on the evidence presented, and re-states the thesis statement. How to Write an Argumentative Essay: 8 Steps Writing the best argumentative essay is all about the preparation, so let's talk steps: 1: Preliminary Research If you have the option to pick your own argumentative essay topic which you most likely will , then choose one or two topics you find the most intriguing or that you have a vested interest in and do some preliminary research on both sides of the debate. Do an open internet search just to see what the general chatter is on the topic and what the research trends are. Did your preliminary reading influence you to pick a side or change your side? Have there been scientific studies? Does a noted scholar in the field agree with you? If not, you may need to pick another topic or side of the argument to support. You can also search individual university or school libraries and websites to see what kinds of academic articles you can access for free. Follow the five-paragraph outline structure from the previous section.

The Tests of Deductive Arguments: Validity and Soundness So far in this chapter, you have learned what arguments are and how to determine their structure, including how to reconstruct arguments in standard form.