But there are two basic styles of abstract: descriptive and informative. Informative abstracts apply to lengthier and more technical research, while descriptive abstracts are more suitable for shorter papers and articles. The best method of determining which abstract type you need to use is to follow the instructions for journal submissions and to read as many other published articles in those journals as possible.
Research all of the guidelines and requirements As you will read time and again in any article about research writing, you should always closely follow the specific guidelines and requirements indicated—be it for publication in a journal, for consideration at a conference, or even for a class assignment.
What are the style and formatting requirements? What is the appropriate abstract type? Are there any specific content or organization rules that apply? Identify your audience The main purpose of your abstract is to lead researchers to your work once it is published. In scientific journals, abstracts let readers decide whether the research discussed is relevant to their own interests or study. Abstracts also help readers understand your main argument quickly.
Consider these questions as you write your abstract: Are other academics in your field the main target of your study? Will your study perhaps be useful to members of the general public? Do the results of your research have wider implications that should be stressed in the abstract?
While Outlining and Writing Your Abstract… Provide only relevant and useful information Just as your research paper title should cover as much ground as possible in a few short words, your abstract must cover all parts of your study in order to fully explain your paper and research. Because it must accomplish this task in the space of only a few hundred words, it is important not to include ambiguous references or phrases that will confuse the reader or mislead them about the content and objectives of your research.
Instead, explain these terms in the Introduction Only use references to people or other words if they are well-known. Otherwise, generally avoid referencing anything outside of your study in the abstract. Never include tables, figures, sources, or long quotations in your abstract; you will have plenty of time to present and refer to these in the body of your paper.
The keywords should thus be words that are commonly used in searches but should also be highly relevant to your work and found in the text of your abstract. Include important words or short phrases central to your research in both the abstract and keywords sections.
The Structure of the Abstract As mentioned above, the abstract especially the informative abstract acts as a surrogate or synopsis of your research paper, doing almost as much work as the thousands of words that follows it in the body. In the hard sciences and most social sciences, the abstract includes the following sections and organizational schema.
Each section is quite compact—only a single sentence or two, although there is room for expansion if one element or statement is particularly interesting or compelling. As the abstract is almost always one long paragraph, the individual sections should naturally merge into one another to create a holistic effect. Use the following as a checklist to ensure that you have included all of the necessary content in your abstract. So your research is about rabies in Brazilian squirrels.
So what? Why is this important? People use the abstract to decide whether to read the rest of the paper, so the abstract for such a paper is important. Because the abstract provides the highlights of the paper, you should draft your abstract after you have written a full draft of the paper. Typically, an abstract for an IMRaD paper or presentation is one or two paragraphs long — words.
Methods To answer this question, we compared the performance of 12 novices medical students with the performance of 12 laparoscopic surgeons using a 2D view and 4 robotic surgeons, using a new robotic system that allows 2D and 3D view. Results Our results showed a trivial effect of expertise surgeons generally performed better than novices.
Results also revealed that experts have adaptive transfer capacities and are able to transfer their skills independently of the human-machine system. Try to avoid these common problems in IMRaD abstracts: 1. The abstract provides a statement of what the paper will ask or explore rather than what it found: X This report examines the causes of oversleeping. Avoid ambiguity and incomplete sentences. Take a look at good examples of abstracts.
There should be research papers in the library for you to scrutinize. Alternatively, you can ask your professor for a few samples. Revise your abstract to check the word count, see if there are no redundant data, and make sure you have included core information. When your finalized draft is ready, ask yourself: Is this abstract clear, concise, and coherent? Does it cover every major element of my paper? Does it summarize the material without adding any new information?
If all the answers are "yes," you are on the right track. But, if you still find it difficult or doubt your draft, you can hire our professional writer or editor to ensure the best outcome.
Research Paper Abstract Example We suggest you look at the research abstract sample below to get a better idea. However, note that we highlighted its main parts for educational purposes. You should write your abstract in one or several simple paragraphs. Research Topic: "Examination of vegetation change after soil erosion.
Objectives: Identify the ground vegetation species composition at the early stages of succession; determine the phytocoenosis change direction over 3 years; project further development of the phytocoenosis under study. Methods: observation and random area sampling. The study examines the vegetation change after soil erosion that causes ecosystem shifts. The research revealed that pioneer species started to appear on the disturbed soil.
Ten sample areas were studies, and their major characteristics are provided in this paper species composition, abundance, etc. The result is given in the form of tables and makes it possible to identify the vegetation species composition at the early stages of succession and predict the further development of the phytocoenosis under study.
Bottom line You should not slack off when writing your abstract if you want to get an attention-drawing research synopsis.
Correct use of search keywords is important here but of greater value is an accurate reflection of what your article or paper is about. The presence of basic errors in the abstract may not affect your content, but it might dissuade someone from reading your entire study. So your research is about rabies in Brazilian squirrels. Better still, have someone who knows nothing about your research take a look at it — that way you can be sure you have hit the appropriate level of assuming no previous knowledge. Now you need to discuss how you solved or made progress on this problem—how you conducted your research.
Include important words or short phrases central to your research in both the abstract and keywords sections.
What answers did I get? While they still do not critique or evaluate a work, they do more than describe it. This particular section just has to inform a reader about the process you implemented to find the answers from the objective. And what is exact purpose of your study; what are you trying to achieve?