Further, the Phoenicians seem to have developed the art of mass production in that similar artifacts, fashioned in the same way and in large quantities, have been found in the different regions with which the Phoenicians traded. Miles notes, Favourite motifs included Egyptian magic symbols such as the eye of Horus , the scarab beetle and the solar crescent, and these were thought to protect their wearers from the evil spirits that prowled the world of the living The Phoenician purple dye, already mentioned above, became the standard adornment of royalty from Mesopotamia , through Egypt, and up through the Roman Empire.
As notable traders, they shared cultures with many nations, which allowed their invention of the alphabet to spread throughout Eurasia This name was so widely accepted that even the Romans adopted it at a later date. Phoenicia was the land between the Orontes River and Mount Carmel. The land was characterized early as the homeland or origination of the surviving Syro-Canaanite civilization.
This unique civilization survived the many threats from other cultures of the 12th century BC. The Syro-Canaan civilization produced many interesting objects Trade starts in one place and will link to other civilizations in the Mediterranean. When the Capsian culture began to travel by sea, it did not start out with the concept of trade, but as a necessity to collect raw materials required for tools.
At that time, no one claimed ownership of the materials, so trade was not an issue. It was not until the Neolithic period when evidence of trade could be seen where Neolithic cultures eventually had obsidian brought in from Anatolian area These people made use of their natural resources to establish trade with such nations as Egypt and Assyria. The geographical locations of the Phoenician city-states were also advantageous to their role as a trading state.
Located on the east coast of the Mediterranean, where Israel lies today, the Phoenicians were able to trade with virtually all of the Mediterranean nations There is no question that the Egyptians and Phoenicians had an influence on the Greek culture, the questions that are being disputed is the exact nature of the relationship and what period of time this relationship existed All three authors admit that the Greek language is an Indo-European language and words that do not directly correlate were probably loaned, borrowed, but not stolen Bernal, p It was originally from a different group of people that the Greeks traded with.
You might have questions like, what was the Greek alphabet. Who made it and when. What did Greeks write about. Who still uses this ancient language. Greece was an ancient civilization that influenced many other languages.
Their alphabet is known world wide. But what is the history behind it They based their culture in the land now known as Italy, but expanded to cover North Africa, much of Western Europe and much of Western Asia. They were to have a significant impact upon Palestine in the two testament eras Old and New. Around B. The rough shape of the Apennine Mountains allowed many of these small tribes to exist separately However, one fact is for certain: the origin of Greek alphabet does not mean the origin of the writing system to the Greek language.
Originally fashioned by ethnic Phoenician groups, the source alphabet is connected to the Ugaritic groups of writing systems that developed around the city of Ugarit Powell Building a cardboard boat has become a fun activity that anyone can take part in.
Towns and schools hold annual cardboard boat regattas, judging the entrants on speed, design, and creativity. In New Richmond, Ohio there is even a cardboard boat museum. These special boats are more than just a box thrown into water; they are designed using elements of engineering and physics to make them not only water ready, but fast and durable With the exterior well in hand, the architects turned their attention to the interior, commissioning extensive murals by well-known artists.
The Odyssey and The Iliad influenced Greek culture, education, and morality. Little is known about Homer and many scholars question whether he existed at all.
Encarta Some say two different unknown authors wrote the two poems. Britannica Others say that many oral poets were responsible for the finished products. Britannica In this report I will discuss the theories that support the existence of an author named Homer The words, alphabets, numbers.
Most epigraphers and paleographers agree that the historical evolution of writing occurred in basically four stages 1. Ideographic 2. Logographic 3. With the decline of Egyptian influence about B. The ultimate collapse of Egyptian power in the region occurred about B. Along with Israelites, they settled in the southern Levant. For reasons not yet fully understood, the massive disruptions caused elsewhere in the Levant appear to have had a minimal effect upon the Phoenician coastal centers.
There is therefore much continuity in Phoenician traditions from the Late Bronze Age until the Hellenistic period around B.
By the middle of the Third Millennium B. The first writer in history known by name is the Mesopotamian priestess Enheduanna BCE , daughter of Sargon of Akkad , who wrote her hymns to the goddess Inanna and signed them with her name and seal. The myths of the people of Mesopotamia, the stories of their gods and heroes, their history, their methods of building, of burying their dead, of celebrating feast days, were now all able to be recorded for posterity.
So important was writing to the Mesopotamians that, under the Assyrian King Ashurbanipal BCE over 30, clay tablet books were collected in the library of his capital at Nineveh. Ashurbanipal was hoping to preserve the heritage, culture, and history of the region and understood clearly the importance of the written word in achieving this end. This system continued to be used for some millennia. In BC, the officials of the token stores used to avoid dispersing the tokens, by placing them inside hollow clay and sealed balls bulla on which they later started drawing the token it contained.
After years, the token were abolished and the hollow balls were replaced with a flat clay tablet on which they simply carved the shapes of the tokens. These tablets were smaller and handier to use than the heavy mud balls. So, all previous three-dimensional objects were replaced with two-dimensional tablets, more handy to be handled and to be stored.
Figure 2 - Clay tokens used to mean farm animals or agricultural products. Anyway, if you wanted to show 43 amphorae, you had to carve 43 drawings of amphora. Somebody thought to simplify things by indicating first the number and then the counted object. In practice, scribes started with indicating the units with lines traced with the tip of a stylus and the tens with circular impressions obtained by pressing the bottom of the stylus on the tablet.
After this number, the figure of what was counted followed. In this manner, to indicate 43 amphorae you no longer needed to draw as many amphorae; you simply had to indicate: OOOO III and the figure of only one amphora. This system was much quicker to use than the former one. Moreover, the signs which indicated numbers and those which indicated goods became two different systems of signs: the accounting system and the writing system. If it was comparatively easy to mean agricultural products with a drawing or with a conventional symbol, it was more difficult to write the name of a person.
To solve this problem, somebody thought of using short words, mono or bi-syllabic, and to unite them in the same way we are doing today with the rebus. So, around BC, other signs were introduced which were not used to mean an object, but rather a sound phonograms. For example, in Sumerian the head was named "lu" and the mouth "ka". By reading one after the other as phonograms the drawing of the head and that of the mouth, it was possible to obtain the name of "Luka" "Luke".
With this important innovation, it was also possible to write the name of persons who were involved in the transaction and not just the goods.
People were also allowed to write abstract words. Several centuries passed before somebody had the idea to use writing for different uses from the accounting ones. In BC, a Sumerian sovereign described his own exploits in a long text. In BC, writing was used for legal purposes, for literature and school texts, etc. Sumerian writing was a mixed system which used conventional symbols, some of which depicted objects and other meant sounds.
Cuneiform writing The term cuneiform writing comes from the fact it is composed of signs that look like small wedges, in Latin: cuneus. Yet, in the beginning cuneiform writing was not at all composed of wedges and on the clay tablets scribes engraved the shape of the designated objects and the possible numerical signs. Usually, the domestic animals and the agricultural products were represented by conventional signs, while for other objects and wild animals they used drawings that represented their distinctive characteristics.
Unfortunately, when scribes were carving clay with a pointed tip they caused chips and detachment of clay fragments. This required continuous cleaning of the drawings while they were carved on the tablets. To avoid this mishap, they began to impress straight marks by mean of a stylus. As a consequence, the drawings were altered.
Curves were replaced with straight marks and the figures lost their realism. Over the centuries, the pictograms used by the Mesopotamians underwent a process of schematization. In the end, the figures were unrecognizable.
They became abstract symbols. Their meaning was no longer tied to the original picture which people were no longer able to recognize figure 3. As I said, the writing that was born for administrative purposes was enriched by symbols having a phonetic value which allowed writing of words that were not possible to represent with a picture, such as the personal names and abstract concepts.
Unlike the Sumerian writing, which for a long time was used in account documents only, very soon the Egyptian one was used for writing, so the Egyptians started using the sheer writing long before the Sumerians. This Aramaic alphabet eventually turned into modern Arabic.
They became abstract symbols. Its representation goes from consoling and comforting, to captivating and inspiring a great mass of people. Usually, the domestic animals and the agricultural products were represented by conventional signs, while for other objects and wild animals they used drawings that represented their distinctive characteristics. During the centuries, these letters have been modified and further have been added. Trade starts in one place and will link to other civilizations in the Mediterranean. The Greek culture was developed through periods of time such as Minoan, Mycenaean, Archaic, Hellenic, and Hellenistic ages.
However, specific references to marine life were never recorded until the writings of Aristotle BC The year old, Moscow papyrus, contains geometry, from the Middle Kingdom of Egypt, Egypt was the cradle of mathematics. The Phoenician alphabet was perhaps the first alphabetic script to be widely-used - the Phoenicians traded around the Mediterraean and beyond, and set up cities and colonies in parts of southern Europe and North Africa - and the origins of most alphabetic writing systems can be traced back to the Phoenician alphabet, including Greek, Etruscan, Latin, Arabic and Hebrew, as well as the scripts of India and East Asia. It was originally from a different group of people that the Greeks traded with. If you are bored, museums, clubs, historic sites and many more are at your fingertips to enjoy and visit
Before writing began During the upper Palaeolithic, , years ago, people started by drawing graffiti and paintings on rocks and walls of caves.