Making meaning in writing and making meaning in reading both have to be newly thought about. Here I will outline some elements of such a theory of literacy; it cannot be complete, but it may provide some useful tools. This theory, as I said, cannot be a linguistic theory. The modes which occur, together with the language-modes of speech and writing, on pages or screens, are constituted on different principles to those of language; their materiality is different; and the work that cultures have done with them has differed also.
The theoretical change is from linguistics to semiotics—from a theory that accounted for language alone to a theory that can account equally well for gesture, speech, image, writing, 3D objects, colour, music and no doubt others. Maybe first and foremost there is the question of how the modes of image and writing appear together, how they are designed to appear together and how they are to be read together.
There is the question then—a real question—in what direction writing is likely to move: will it move back towards speech-like forms, and become mere transcription of speech again, or will it move back in the direction of its image origins? Absoluter und komparativer vorteil beispiel essay medical essays. In Before Writing: Rethinking the Paths to Literacy, Gunther Kress showed that children extend and enhance meanings by moving signs across modal-ities, as they make a single sign using multiple practices with varied media Corruption essay words every sixth - agnesviertel.
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Here are some tips to help your child learn these skills. To help your child get a better grasp when he starts learning to write, consider buying some golf pencils. These are the Online essays for css colors - tehnik. Image, writing, layout, speech, moving images are examples of different modes.
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The chief differences between social semiotics and multimodality hinges on the status of language. Social semiotics was concerned with Language and multimodality theory questions the primacy of language in social interaction, and education more specifically. Before I trained as a teacher, I was trained as a fine artist. My interest in sculpture, printmaking, drawing, and painting translated easily into my pedagogical practices with deaf students.
I was mystified as to what the underlying operations were or why students appeared to be so drawn to my pedagogical design. His work has become foundational to how I consider intersections of curricular design, pedagogical practice, and assessment construction. Writing and image: Mode, thinking, and the shapes of knowledge What is a mode? Modes are the smallest parts of meaningful communication, analogous to morphemes in linguistics.
Modes give shape to knowledge. Multimodal research aims to disaggregate complex, implicit meaning into the smaller essential carriers of information before interpreting their social or educational uses. My interest in aesthetic phenomena is grounded in the lived experience of deaf education and students who learn primarily through vision, sight, and close analysis of images. Of these, the educational implications appear to be the most important Jewett, , and in my view, perhaps most complex and least understood.
Among many others like Bowen and Whithaus , Lunsford and Sullivan have popularized social semiotic theories of multimodality for academic audiences, college composition faculty, and students. Multimodal methodologies are increasingly represented in the research literatures on learning, teaching, and communication using contemporary modal ensembles.
For instance, the work of discourse analysis is infinitely facilitated by the terms, theories, and practices that multimodal theorists have developed. Kress ; contends that it is impossible to understand or make meaning of texts without considering how writing and image relate to one another in situ;4 one cannot be fully separated from the other.
For speech, the demands of planning provide one limitation to the length of the normal unit. So do the demands of processing in reception in hearing, through the limitations of memory. These coincide to some extent with the limitations of the physiological production of speech. That is, the length of the unit which forms the basis of the spoken utterance is determined by the length of time it takes to expel air from our lungs in a normal breath.
Informationally, elements of greater prominence are made distinct from those of lesser prominence through pitch variation. Whatever it is that speakers have in mind, in speaking they are bound by the logic of sequence in time.
These factors together produce a characteristic formal organization of spoken language namely, of a single clause; which is joined by various means intonation, and, often through conjunctions of various kinds to the next clause.
Consequently, development takes place sequentially, by elaboration, restatement, repetition; usually nuanced by a complex system of means of conjunctions, of which intonation may be the most elaborate. Here is a very brief example of speech-structure. Sometimes the link is made with a conjunction word; sometimes by intonation alone. Children therefore always meet language as text. A fundamental question for a literacy curriculum is therefore that about the typical kinds of texts, speech-genres, which a particular child, or a group of children, or a community of children, bring as their linguistic resources to the learning of writing.
For instance, a child who typically participates freely in interaction through dialogic forms of speech at home or in their peer group, may be disadvantaged in relation to the child who has experience of forms of communication of a more monologic, written kind, in a society which values writing above speech, and therefore values broadly monologic forms above dialogic ones.
For writing, the limitations of sequence as well as the other limitations that I mentioned are far less significant, and in many forms of writing they are replaced by processes of complex syntactic design, such as the subordination of one clause to another, embedding, for instance. These are often developed through careful and extensive editing. The limitations which exists for the size of the unit in speech is more or less absent for writing.
Writing is a visual medium; and so time and temporality are replaced by space and spatiality. Consequently the logic of temporal sequence is replaced by the logic of an abstract spatial arrangement, namely by hierarchy. In writing, development of a conceptual kind takes place by complex hierarchical interrelations of clauses, in which embedding of one clause in another is the characteristic mode.
This produces the unit which we all know as the sentence. Writing is the medium of overt forms of communication, of monologic genres. In speech the needs of the interlocutor are of primary concern; this is not the case in writing to the same extent. There those needs are replaced by the development of what the writer thinks is the appropriate conceptual or other structure of the text. The learning of writing proceeds in exactly the same fashion as the development of other sign systems: employing the strategy of using the best, most apt available form for the expression of a particular meaning.
Children use such representational means as they have available for making that meaning. The signs which children make are, despite their differences from adult form, fully meaningful in every sense.
These habituated ways of seeing and of acting are nearly invisible to us; they have become second nature, obvious and beyond the need or the possibility of inspection.
This naturalization has its foundation in the myriad of social and cultural experiences which make up our own personal histories. Nevertheless it may be useful to focus on two relatively different kinds of influences in this shaping of common sense: overt instruction, and our own practical experience.
To do so, I will consider several quite ordinary and everyday kinds of activities which children of, say, up to 8 years of age happily, readily and constantly engage in, without particular prompting.
Some of these examples I have to reconstruct here by telling alone. Sequences of play have a relative stability, which, I imagine, appear to the children engaged in them as coherent, stable and persistent, because the changes, the transformations—each quite minute in itself yet adding up to significant change quite rapidly—are each of them well motivated by the substance of the play.
In all the examples which I will discuss here, as in all examples in all instances, my assumption is that at a particular moment we, all of us, act out of a certain interest in the environment in which we are, and that in our making of signs, that interest is reflected in the sign in the best possible way, in the most plausible fashion, in the most apt form. As all signs are complex, then the further assumption on which I proceed is that all aspects of these complex signs are equally formed in that way.
Reading of signs, whether made by child or adult, is therefore an attempt to uncover the complexity of that initial interest as it is represented in the sign. That is what I wish to show here: that all signs show rationality, logic, human desire and affect. Consider the cars in Figure 2. They are drawn at around the same time, together with many others, at a period of great interest by the drawer in this kind of car.
Let me describe some of the differences and similarities. The car in Figure 2. Apart from the name of the car, the written labelling is about power too, indicating strength, or potential violence. The child decided to cut around this picture, though he did not cut out the car, as he did do, by contrast, in Plate 1.
Difference in cutting-out is therefore part of the complex sign too. His cutting-out tells us that what he has chosen to represent in Figure 2. So this sign, Figure 2. The detail of Figure 2. The surface of this object has been worked to a shiny finish, by intense rubbing with the red and the black pencils.
Streamlining is emphasized by the style of the paintwork. Above all, perhaps, the difference of interest between Figure 2. As much effort has gone into the precision of cutting around the shape of the car in Plate 1 as into anything else. Clearly the two images share an overarching interest. Yet there are also distinct and fundamental differences. The resources available to this child for making these objects were the same in each case. First, there is a history of previous reading and seeing—whether of Thunderbirds as a television series, as comic-strip, as detailed technical information; or of James Bond films seen on television.
But sameness of resources gives rise to importantly different design, to different representational, aesthetic, affective and cognitive purposes. It was also made at this time. This object is three-dimensional: a craft perhaps now a space-craft with the same triangular, dart-shape, made from Lego blocks. As with Figure 2. At this point the potentials— and limitations—of the representational resources become most noticeable.
But in Figure 2. The cognitive potentials of the three objects are distinct; each offers possibilities and imposes limitations. In part it is suggested by and determined by the possibilities of the material; in part the maker of the sign shapes the material in accordance with his interests.
But the possibilities of shaping differ for Lego blocks and paper. In the process of the making of these objects the child has explored, shaped, designed and remade for himself significant notions of a technical, aesthetic and cognitive kind. Cognitively—and conceptually—this exploration ranges from the still relatively twodimensional representation of Figure 2. The concepts explored in the making of each of these three objects are every bit as demanding, rewarding and significant as any concept expressed and explored in the medium of either spoken or written language.
So are the cognitive challenges. Affectively each of the three offers totally different possibilities. An attempt to translate any of these into language reveals the real difficulty, in fact the impossibility of that task. These are ideas, concepts, notions, feelings, relations, affective states which are properly expressed in the way they are expressed here, and translation into language produces at best an impoverished account. Nevertheless, of the three it is perhaps Figure 2.
I can pick up, feel, handle, the cut-out car. It is a tangible object; it gives me the possibility of a real tactile relation. I can feel how heavy or light it is, how smooth its surface, feel its shape, its dynamic quality. This is obviously so with the Lego car also. It fulfils all the criteria and meets all the requirements of the detail of Figure 2. Above all, I can move it about and place it in entirely new environments, with other objects, to form new structures in new imagined and real worlds.
Its affective qualities and potentials are entirely different from those of the flat, two-dimensional object. With the latter, any attempts to insert it into an imaginary new context do have to remain imaginary and distanced. He claims that "image is spatial and nonsequential, and writing and speech are temporal and sequential" , In his understanding, this difference is crucial for representation and communication since it affects one's knowledge as well as engagement with the social and natural world.
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Here is a very brief example of speech-structure. This paper presents a partial Leadership for change essays - paschal-law. It has become accessible to my imagination in a different manner, and it can enter, physically, into a world of imagination constructed with other objects of whatever kind. The child decided to cut around this picture, though he did not cut out the car, as he did do, by contrast, in Plate 1. One consequence of this is that all the outwardly produced signs are full of meaning.
Neither of the two approaches envisages the possibility of productive, transformative action by an individual, child or adult, in relation to language or literacy.
The education system has a duty to ask constantly about its values, practices and assumptions, in relation to society generally, and to the economy in particular. But these certainties had fostered and developed, and had themselves depended on certain kinds of dispositions. Sometimes the link is made with a conjunction word; sometimes by intonation alone. Language itself comes in two still deeply distinct forms: as speech and as writing; and not all of us have full command of language in the written mode. Other modes are there as well, and in many environments where writing occurs these other modes may be more prominent and more significant.
The theoretical approach that I adopt is a social semiotic one. Cornoldi, R. I still write by hand, which is becoming a severe problem for me. But some new terms can actually aid debate, by mapping out a new field, labelling some of its distinctively important features and allowing some security in the discussion. This makes it necessary that each participant chooses forms of expression which are at least in principle as transparent as is possible for the other participants. But this imposes a willed limitation on the possibilities of kinds of thinking and of forms of representing.
Kress' research covers a wide range of topics from semiotics to media literacy and from education to multimodality. Social semiotics. For speech, the demands of planning provide one limitation to the length of the normal unit.
And there is the old question of the resources of the mode of writing …. A rethinking and new modes of thinking will have to be aware of these changes, speculate about the continuing changes, and their likely effects over the coming decades. Affectively each of the three offers totally different possibilities. Social semiotics was concerned with Language and multimodality theory questions the primacy of language in social interaction, and education more specifically.