Haitian Kreyol was a language that was developed by the slaves of the French colony of Haiti, they wanted to communicate without the French understanding them In order to institute trade, communicate with native cultures, and spread ideology, man has created lingua franca. In its essence, a lingua franca is a nonnative tongue used between speakers of dissimilar dialects in order to communicate effectively. Though a lingua franca has been used from ancient history to modern era, recently, the concept of an international lingua franca has become popular; it is a language that could be spoken by the general public, regardless of their financial state or theological standpoint Holm 7.
The lexifier languages, meaning the languages that donate the vocabulary to creole and pidgin languages are most often French, English, Spanish or Dutch.
These are the former countries of colonial power. Pidgin and creole in linguistic studies 3. Van Name is said to be the first who described lexical and phonological similarities between different creoles of the Carribean cf. Holm Since the end of the 19th century therefore creoles hav not been regarded as the languages of people who are incapable of learning the correct forms of the lexifier languages but as they could get insights in the general mechanisms of language change and the origins and products of innovation.
Linguists realized that through investigating in creole languages development of languages. In the late s creole and pidgin studies were then established as a new academic field and a few characteristics of creoles and pidgins predestine them for linguistic studies. Chopin shows the diversity of each of those three characters- Roberts awakening, and the struggle to do the right thing, Alcee and his carefree and unconcerned attitude towards society's expectations, and Mr. This is how Pidgin and Creole languages have evolved.
The objective of this paper is to show that Pidgin and Creole languages are very complex and compelling, and it is clear that new things are being discovered about these languages at a continual rate. These assessments all contribute to hypothesis that Creoles are not just simplified, deformed replicas of a proper language.
Pronoun representation in Haitian Creole according to Civan, Vilsaint and Morisset is noted as being simpler than that of French and English.
Only one form is used for Subject, object and possessive. Pronouns in Haitian Creole may occur in either the full or contracted form. Like the worlds lingua francas, the Haitian Creole and by extension other Creoles possess critical structural elements which substantiates the claim that Creole is a language in its own right.
Civan, Vilsaint and Morisset also highlights in, Haitian Creole that the Haitian Creole verb system is very different from that of the French and English verb system. The Haitian Creole verb system has no subject-verb agreement; there are also very minimal verb tense changes. Instead of the changes which would normally occur in English and French, Haitian Creole uses a system of markers or what they refer to as short participles, which precede the verb, which would indicate the tense or tense change.
In the Haitian Creole the particle te is used to indicate past tense, ap would be used to indicate the progressive tense and pral e would indicate the future.
Verbs without markers in the Haitian Creole may indicate simple present tense or immediate past tense Refugee Fact Sheet, No. Haitian- Jan ak Gabi rammase liv yo. Haitian- Li te marye mwa pase. English John collects the books. English John and Gaby collect books. English She got married last month. In Haitian Creole there are two types of Articles, the definite and the indefinite which is synonymous to that of the French and English languages. Though similar, Civan, Vilsaint and Morisset note that there are some significant differences in the placement, usage and form of Haitian Creole articles.
The definite article in Haitian Creole exhibits both a singular and plural form and is always follows the noun in a sentence. The indefinite article is represented with the article yon which always precedes the noun. Another integral factor in determining if a language is structured is the vocabulary or lexicon of the language.
Haitian Creole lexicon and many other Creoles are primarily derivative from the superstratum language. In the case of the Haitian Creole, the lexicon is heavily Frenchbased. In the study done by Lefebvre in Chapter 8, Issues in the Study of pidgin and Creole Languages on the Haitian Creole, she noted that through the process of relexification, the lexical system which is in the process of being relexified, each entry will acquire a second phonological representation which is derived from the lexifier language.
Each lexical entry which would be the entry from the substratum and the entry from the intended new Creole will at a certain point during relexification would have two phonological representations The Haitian Creole word base according to Civan, Vilsaint and Morisset, Their History and Culture: Haitian Creole has been enriched with borrowings from other languages with which Haitian Creole speakers had come into contact with during colonialism.
A creole is the native language of some of its speakers. Professor Loreto Todd , pp. Here is the brief description: a. Phase 1 : Marginal Contact This phase would have involved casual and unsustained contact between English speakers and the local people.
From such contact a marginal pidgin evolves; capable, with the help of gestures, of communicating physical needs and trading arrangements, etc. A marginal pidgin is inadequate for more than the most rudimentary forms of communication. Since it is largely supplemented by gesture, discussion is limited to tangible objects, especially those in the immediate vicinity.
Such a mode of communication is of limited value only. If the contact is prolonged and intimate a fuller form of communication must develop and the pidgin either abandoned or expanded.
It is likely that since the sixteenth century several pidgin Englishes have come into existence and died out. The only two options open to a marginal pidgin are to disappear or to become more useful by the expansion of its resources.
Phase 2 : Period Of Nativization This phase would have begun as soon as the pidgin English was used by and between local people. This phase helps to account for the indigenous lexical items and the numerous direct translations found in all pidgin and creole Englishes. The expansion of a pidgin is facilitated by two main factors: its developing in a multilingual area and its use not so much in non-native to native contact as in contacts between native inhabitants speaking mutually unintelligible languages.
In this phase can be occured reduplications. Reduplicated forms occur in all the English-based pidgins and creoles.
Lefebvre attributes the similarity to the relexification process which states that a phonological representation of a Creole is usually derived from the superstratum 8. According to Holm , pp. Another integral factor in determining if a language is structured is the vocabulary or lexicon of the language.
Usually, as in Hawaii and Sierra Leone, this language was English, but occasionally, as in Surinam, it was another European language, Dutch in the case of Surinam. Also, he identified in his article that in a nation where barely a fifth of Creole speakers can read or write, the upper crust uses French to maintain their superiority and in the process quietly suppress the Haitian Creole. English She got married last month. The Refugee Service Center. High percentage of content words with a correspondingly low number of function words.
Morisset, Gepsie. First it describes a special vocabulary which is used by a certain group within a society. Creole languages develop ways systematically signaling meaning such as verb tenses, and these may develop into inflections or affixes over time.
Little morphological marking. Fort, Hugues. It is restricted to a few domains but it can evolve into a stable pidgin. So do the words heave, hoist, hail, galley, cargo.
The process of decreolization is most in evidence in the New World varieties, though it is to be found in all areas where the two types of language co-exist. Pronoun representation in Haitian Creole according to Civan, Vilsaint and Morisset is noted as being simpler than that of French and English.
A creole language is a mother tongue formed from the contact of two languages through an earlier pidgin stage.