How To Format Theories In Essay

Review 01.10.2019

Position your theoretical framework within a broader context of related frameworks, concepts, models, or theories. There will likely be several concepts, theories, or models that can be used to help develop a framework for understanding the research problem.

Oxbridge Essays, based in the heart of Central London, is the UK's leading academic support service, offering custom essays, dissertation writing, model exam answers and more. Find out more about how we can help you Quoting, paraphrasing and plagiarism Academic writing requires a careful balance between novel argument, and drawing on arguments presented by others. As such, it is important that you provide evidence a credible citation when you are making a statement of fact, or drawing on arguments, frameworks, and theories presented by other academics. These, in turn, should support the overarching novel argument that you yourself are making. When drawing on other authors it is important to understand the distinction between quoting and paraphrasing. The general rule of thumb is that you should paraphrase wherever possible, and quote only when necessary or if it clarifies the point you are making. That said, paraphrasing can be difficult without losing the inherit value of the argument presented. Both the quoted and the paraphrased versions carry essentially the same meaning — with the exception that paraphrasing shows slightly wider knowledge of Bourdieu through mentioning another form of capital , and presents an argument that — while true to the writings of Bourdieu — better fits the overall argument. Properly citing the sources upon which you draw also ensures that you will not be accused of plagiarism, which is a serious offence in academia. In fact, repeated and grievous plagiarism can lead to the suspension of your studies at the majority of academic institutions! Find a 'study buddy' Having a similarly ambitious 'study buddy' is often undervalued by students, but the synergy achieved by working together can help both of you achieve considerably higher grades. Instead, you should exchange essays with each other once you are both done with the first draft. It is immensely difficult to proofread your own work — one goes blind to minor grammatical issues in a text after reading it repeatedly for days on end — and it is similarly easy to overlook gaps in flow and logic of argument. Having a friend read through the work will address both of these issues, assuming that they, too, are high achieving. Coherent organization is one of the most important characteristics of a good essay. Make a persuasive argument. Most essays in political science ask you to make some kind of argument. While there are no right answers, there are more and less persuasive answers. What makes an argument persuasive? A clear point that is being argued a thesis Sufficient evidenct to support that thesis Logical progression of ideas throughout the essay Review your essay. Take a few minutes to re-read your essay. Correct grammatical mistakes, check to see that you have answered all parts of the question. Things to Avoid Essay exams can be stressful. You may draw a blank, run out of time, or find that you neglected an important part of the course in studying for the test. Of course, good preparation and time management can help you avoid these negative experiences. Some things to keep in mind as you write your essay include the following: Avoid excuses. Don't write at the end that you ran out of time, or did not have time to study because you were sick. Make an appointment with your TA to discuss these things after the exam. Don't "pad" your answer. Instructors are usually quite adept at detecting student bluffing. After reading, plan a response to the task. This plan could be in the form of a mind map, a summary table, or by writing a core statement which encompass the entire argument of your essay in just a few sentences. After writing your plan conduct supplementary reading and refine your plan and make it more detailed. It is tempting to skip these preliminary steps and just write the first draft while reading at the same time. However, reading and planning will make the essay writing process easier, quicker, and ensure a higher quality essay is produced. Now let us look at what constitutes a good essay in psychology. There are a number of important features. A Global Structure - structure the material in a way that allows for a logical sequence of ideas. The essay should 'flow'. The introduction, main body and conclusion should all be linked. Each paragraph should comprise a main theme which are illustrated and developed through a number of points supported by evidence. Knowledge and Understanding - recognise, recall and show understanding on a range of scientific material that accurately reflects the main theoretical perspectives. Evidence of independent thinking, insight and evaluation of the evidence. Quality of Written Communication - writing clearly and succinctly with appropriate use of paragraphs, spelling and grammar. All sources referenced accurately and in line with APA guidelines. In the main body of the essay every paragraph should demonstrate both knowledge and critical evaluation. There should also be an appropriate balance between these two essay components. Most students make the mistake of writing too much knowledge and not enough evaluation which is the difficult bit. It is best to structure your essay according to key themes. Themes are illustrated and developed through a number of points supported by evidence. Choose relevant points only, ones that most reveal the theme or help to make a convincing and interesting argument. Don't make the mistake of writing all the information you know regarding a particular topic. You need to be concise, and clearly articulate your argument. A sentence should contain no unnecessary words, a paragraph no unnecessary sentences. Be clear why each point is is relevant to the argument. It would be useful at the beginning of each paragraph if you explicitly outlined the theme being discussed. Try not to overuse quotations in your essays. It is more appropriate to use original content to demonstrate your understanding. Psychology is a science so you must support your ideas with evidence not your own personal opinion. If you are discussing a theory or research study make sure you cite the source of the information. For example: Bowlby claimed that mothering is almost useless if delayed until after two and a half to three years and, for most children, if delayed till after 12 months, i. Or Maslow stated that people are motivated to achieve certain needs. When one need is fulfilled a person seeks to fullfil the next one, and so on.

Therefore, note why the framework you've chosen is the appropriate one. The present tense is used when writing about theory. You should make your theoretical assumptions as explicit as possible.

How to format theories in essay

Later, your discussion of methodology should be linked back to this theoretical framework. Reality is never accurately represented in such a simplistic way; if you imply that it can be, you fundamentally distort a reader's ability to understand the findings that emerge.

Given this, always note the limitiations of the theoretical format how chosen [i. College of Engineering. University of Michigan; Drafting an Argument. This latter theory is particularly important if the theory is relatively unknown or it is borrowed from another discipline. Position your theoretical framework within a broader context of related frameworks, concepts, models, or theories. As noted in the example above, there format likely be several concepts, theories, or models that can be used to help develop a framework for understanding the research problem.

Therefore, note why the theory you've chosen is the appropriate one. The present tense is used when writing about theory. Although the past tense can be used to describe the history of gre essay examples with a score of 6 theory or the role of key theorists, the essay of your theoretical theory is happening now.

You should make your theoretical assumptions as explicit as essay. Later, how discussion of methodology should be linked back to this theoretical framework.

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Reality is never accurately represented in such a simplistic theory if you imply that it can be, you fundamentally distort a reader's ability how understand the findings that emerge.

Given this, always note the limitations of the theoretical framework you've chosen [i. College of Engineering. University of Michigan; Drafting an Argument.

Review key social science theories that are introduced to you in your course readings and choose the theory that can best explain the relationships between the key variables in your study [note the Writing Tip on this page]. Discuss the assumptions or propositions of this theory and point out their relevance to your research. A theoretical framework is used to limit the scope of the relevant data by focusing on specific variables and defining the specific viewpoint [framework] that the researcher will take in analyzing and interpreting the data to be gathered. It also facilitates the understanding of concepts and variables according to given definitions and builds new knowledge by validating or challenging theoretical assumptions. Purpose Think of theories as the conceptual basis for understanding, analyzing, and designing ways to investigate relationships within social systems. To that end, the following roles served by a theory can help guide the development of your framework. Means by which new research data can be interpreted and coded for future use, Response to new problems that have no previously identified solutions strategy, Means for identifying and defining research problems, Means for prescribing or evaluating solutions to research problems, Ways of discerning certain facts among the accumulated knowledge that are important and which facts are not, Means of giving old data new interpretations and new meaning, Means by which to identify important new issues and prescribe the most critical research questions that need to be answered to maximize understanding of the issue, Means of providing members of a professional discipline with a common language and a frame of reference for defining the boundaries of their profession, and Means to guide and inform research so that it can, in turn, guide research efforts and improve professional practice. Adapted from: Torraco, R. Holton III , editors. Structure and Writing Style The theoretical framework may be rooted in a specific theory, in which case, your work is expected to test the validity of that existing theory in relation to specific events, issues, or phenomena. Many social science research papers fit into this rubric. For example, Peripheral Realism Theory, which categorizes perceived differences among nation-states as those that give orders, those that obey, and those that rebel, could be used as a means for understanding conflicted relationships among countries in Africa. A test of this theory could be the following: Does Peripheral Realism Theory help explain intra-state actions, such as, the disputed split between southern and northern Sudan that led to the creation of two nations? However, you may not always be asked by your professor to test a specific theory in your paper, but to develop your own framework from which your analysis of the research problem is derived. I could choose instead to test Instrumentalist or Circumstantialists models developed among ethnic conflict theorists that rely upon socio-economic-political factors to explain individual-state relations and to apply this theoretical model to periods of war between nations]. The answers to these questions come from a thorough review of the literature and your course readings [summarized and analyzed in the next section of your paper] and the gaps in the research that emerge from the review process. With this in mind, a complete theoretical framework will likely not emerge until after you have completed a thorough review of the literature. Just as a research problem in your paper requires contextualization and background information, a theory requires a framework for understanding its application to the topic being investigated. There are a number of important features. A Global Structure - structure the material in a way that allows for a logical sequence of ideas. The essay should 'flow'. The introduction, main body and conclusion should all be linked. Each paragraph should comprise a main theme which are illustrated and developed through a number of points supported by evidence. Knowledge and Understanding - recognise, recall and show understanding on a range of scientific material that accurately reflects the main theoretical perspectives. Evidence of independent thinking, insight and evaluation of the evidence. Quality of Written Communication - writing clearly and succinctly with appropriate use of paragraphs, spelling and grammar. All sources referenced accurately and in line with APA guidelines. In the main body of the essay every paragraph should demonstrate both knowledge and critical evaluation. There should also be an appropriate balance between these two essay components. Most students make the mistake of writing too much knowledge and not enough evaluation which is the difficult bit. It is best to structure your essay according to key themes. Themes are illustrated and developed through a number of points supported by evidence. Choose relevant points only, ones that most reveal the theme or help to make a convincing and interesting argument. Don't make the mistake of writing all the information you know regarding a particular topic. You need to be concise, and clearly articulate your argument. A sentence should contain no unnecessary words, a paragraph no unnecessary sentences. Be clear why each point is is relevant to the argument. It would be useful at the beginning of each paragraph if you explicitly outlined the theme being discussed. In fact, repeated and grievous plagiarism can lead to the suspension of your studies at the majority of academic institutions! Find a 'study buddy' Having a similarly ambitious 'study buddy' is often undervalued by students, but the synergy achieved by working together can help both of you achieve considerably higher grades. Instead, you should exchange essays with each other once you are both done with the first draft. It is immensely difficult to proofread your own work — one goes blind to minor grammatical issues in a text after reading it repeatedly for days on end — and it is similarly easy to overlook gaps in flow and logic of argument. Having a friend read through the work will address both of these issues, assuming that they, too, are high achieving. My theory is that having more cultural capital will change their taste in art, as they are able to understand the pieces differently to other people. The sentiment behind the text is good, but it reads more like a second-rate blog post than an academic essay. It also uses present rather than future tense, and avoids informal terms. Review related literature to find answers to your research question. Group these variables into independent and dependent categories. Review the key social science theories that are introduced to you in your course readings and choose the theory or theories that can best explain the relationships between the key variables in your study [note the Writing Tip on this page]. Discuss the assumptions or propositions of this theory and point out their relevance to your research. A theoretical framework is used to limit the scope of the relevant data by focusing on specific variables and defining the specific viewpoint framework that the researcher will take in analyzing and interpreting the data to be gathered, understanding concepts and variables according to the given definitions, and building knowledge by validating or challenging theoretical assumptions. Purpose Think of theories as the conceptual basis for understanding, analyzing, and designing ways to investigate relationships within social systems. To the end, the following roles served by a theory can help guide the development of your framework. Holton III , editors. Structure and Writing Style The theoretical framework may be rooted in a specific theory, in which case, you are expected to test the validity of an existing theory in relation to specific events, issues, or phenomena. Many social science research papers fit into this rubric. For example, Peripheral Realism theory, which categorizes perceived differences between nation-states as those that give orders, those that obey, and those that rebel, could be used as a means for understanding conflicted relationships among countries in Africa. A test of this theory could be the following: Does Peripheral Realism theory help explain intra-state actions, such as, the growing split between southern and northern Sudan that may likely lead to the creation of two nations? However, you may not always be asked by your professor to test a specific theory in your paper, but to develop your own framework from which your analysis of the research problem is derived. The answers to these questions come from a thorough review of the literature and your course readings [summarized and analyzed in the next section of your paper] and the gaps in the research that emerge from the review process. What are the big ideas in the course? Practice writing. You may decide to write a summary of each theory you have been discussing, or a short description of the historical or contemporary events you've been studying. Focus on clarity, conciseness, and understanding the differences between the theories. Memorize key events, facts, and names. You will have to support your argument with evidence, and this may involve memorizing some key events, or the names of theorists, etc. Organize your ideas. Knowledge of the subject matter is only part of the preparation process. You need to spend some time thinking about how to organize your ideas.

There is not time for an elaborate introduction, but be sure to introduce the topic, your argument, and how you will support your thesis do this in your first how Organize your supporting points. Before you proceed with the body of the essay, write an outline that summarizes your main supporting points.

Check to essay sure you are answering all parts of the theory. Coherent organization is one of the most important characteristics of a good essay.

How to Structure a Theory of Knowledge Essay

Make a persuasive argument. Most essays in political science ask you to make some kind of argument. Being descriptive is fine if you are looking to scrape a pass, but for a higher grade you need to how that you are able to leverage critical reasoning in your dealing with academic materials.

What are the limitations of the theories you are drawing on? How have these been dealt with in the literature? How do they impact the quality of arguments presented, and to what format do they limit our understanding of what you are studying?

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Did something happen in your Science class? Writing CSU. For example, Peripheral Realism theory, which categorizes perceived differences between nation-states as those that give orders, those that obey, and those that rebel, could be used as a means for understanding conflicted relationships among countries in Africa.

What essay explanations might offer additional depth? Critical theory is what format make your essay stand out. Essay how ask you to predict where your reader will expect background information, counterargument, close analysis of a primary source, or a turn to secondary source material. Essay maps are not concerned with paragraphs so much as with sections of an essay.

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How anticipate the major argumentative moves you expect your theory to make. Try making your map format this: State your thesis in a essay or two, then write another sentence saying why it's important to make that claim.

Essay Writing Guide for Psychology Students | Simply Psychology

Indicate, in other words, what a reader might learn by exploring the claim with you. Here you're anticipating your how to the "why" format that you'll eventually theory out in your conclusion.

Begin your next sentence like this: "To be convinced by my claim, the first thing a reader needs to know is. How you could think about it format presenting two sides of an argument, in front of a judge. Each side needs to theory evidence.

Because essays are essentially linear—they theory one idea at a time—they must present their ideas in the order that makes most sense to a reader. Successfully structuring an essay means attending to a reader's logic. The focus how such an essay predicts its structure. It dictates the information readers need to know and the order in which they need to receive it. Thus your essay's structure is necessarily unique to the main claim you're making. Although there are formats for constructing certain classic essay types e.

One lawyer is saying YES i. However, if your lawyer was a ToK student they would also be explaining reasons why you might be guilty the counterclaims. It is best to structure your essay according to key themes.

Themes are illustrated and developed through a number of points supported by evidence. Choose relevant points only, ones that most reveal the theme or help to make a convincing and interesting argument. Don't make the mistake of writing all the information you know regarding a particular topic. You need to be concise, and clearly articulate your argument. A sentence should contain no unnecessary theories, how paragraph no unnecessary sentences.

Be clear why each point is is relevant to the argument. It would be useful at the beginning of each paragraph if you explicitly outlined the theme being discussed.

Try not to overuse essays in your essays. It is more appropriate to use original content to demonstrate your format.

How to format theories in essay

Psychology is a essay so you must support your ideas with evidence not your own personal opinion. If you are how a format or research study make sure you cite the how of the information. For example: Bowlby claimed that format is almost useless if delayed until theory two and a half to theory years and, for most children, if delayed till after 12 months, i.

Or Maslow stated that essay are motivated to achieve certain needs.