How To Say I Will Argue In Spanish Essay

Thesis 28.10.2019

Identify the main argument, and then make a bulleted list of important points.

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In my opinion, young people should eat healthier. Puranik, Cynthia S. This is the method approached in the present study, where the ratio of morphosyntactic, lexical and spelling errors per a hundred words was established. It may be argued that OT can help pupils to gain insight in more difficult Spanish clause and sentence structures something that several pupils commented on in the interviews ; however, as the OT made several mistakes as regards the appropriate mode use, the pedagogic value is questionable. Both explanations seem to be true, among different pupils, judging from the questionnaire and the interviews 5. Grammatical Complexity The terms grammatical, morphological and syntactic complexity are to some extent interchangeable in the literature and are not equally subdivided by different researchers.

Finally, write a few sentences summarizing your personal opinion. Learn targeted vocabulary for talking about opinions and arguments. Is there anything more frustrating than knowing exactly what you want to say, but not having the vocabulary to say it?

Morphological Complexity As mentioned earlier, the number of different verb forms present in the essays was used as a measure of grammatical complexity. On an average, the online group essays contained 4. The most frequent verb forms were the present tense indicative, the infinitive, the perfect indicative, the preterit, the imperfect indicative and the periphrastic future indicative. The gerund did only occur in the online group essays, as did the perfect subjunctive, the imperfect subjunctive and the conditional. The forms are not always used correctly, especially not the conditional. The only verb forms that were more common, on average, in the offline group essays were perfect participles often incorrectly used without an auxiliary verb , non-existent verb forms i. The first two cases can be explained by the fact that the offline group pupils received no help to conjugate verbs and sometimes forgot the auxiliary verb needed to form the perfect tense or simply mistook the verb ending or the way to handle the verb stem. It is more difficult to explain why they also used the imperfect tense more, but it is possible that the offline group had worked more recently in the classes with this tense and were thus more prone to using it. Syntactic Complexity The average number of sentences per essay was The average sentence length in the online group was Differences at sentence level were thus small and non-significant. It deserves to be remembered also that the number of words per sentence does not automatically indicate sentence complexity, as many of the less proficient pupils wrote quite long sentences, simply coordinating independent clauses, something generally considered as a sign of a low level of grammatical complexity in writers cf. When attempting to look at the number of clauses and the distribution of dependent and independent clauses, there are significant differences between the groups, the online group producing more dependent and independent clauses, and more clauses per sentence, as specified in Table IV. As mentioned above, a caveat not to forget is the highly unclear clause structure produced by many pupils, which made it quite difficult to deduce what to count as a what kind of clause. The category of syntactically unclear clauses, used when the nature of a clause could not be unequivocally established, was slightly more frequent in the online group mean number 1. Table IV. Clause distribution in the online group and the offline group essays 5. Lexical Complexity In the present study, no immediate differences in the ways the pupils approached the essay topics can be seen between the groups nor, to any greater extent, within the groups , most of them writing more or less the same things and presenting similar ideas, with no clearly discernible differences in vocabulary. Yu, , and Malvern et al. Arnaud The result was exactly the same in both groups: The fact that both groups ended up with the exact same mean number of unique words is rather unexpected, considering the fact that the online group had immediate access to OT. Now, there are many ways to count lexical variation18, none of them perfect — especially not when it comes to evaluating lexical variation in short texts or texts of highly differing lengths, such as the essays analysed in the present study. This seems to indicate that OT might enhance the range of vocabulary in written texts which does not necessarily mean, though, that pupils actually learn more words. The numbers above are, however, difficult to interpret and seem in any case to show very small differences between the groups. The small differences in lexical variation that exist within each group, and more specifically among the OT users in the online group where, on an average, high-achievers produced Results on Accuracy Regarding accuracy, an initial hypothesis was that the online group would commit more grammatical and syntactic errors, whereas the offline group, having to cope without spelling and grammar checker assistance, would make more errors in terms of orthography cf. In the following paragraphs, features concerning accuracy in the essays will be presented and discussed, with special focus on significant differences between the groups. Regarding verb mood, this can be compared to the fact that the online group used more verb forms and were thus at a greater risk of using them incorrectly. It does indicate, however, that neither the OT nor the grammar checker of Word were able to always analyse sentence context and supply the correct verb mood. It may be argued that OT can help pupils to gain insight in more difficult Spanish clause and sentence structures something that several pupils commented on in the interviews ; however, as the OT made several mistakes as regards the appropriate mode use, the pedagogic value is questionable. Table V sums up the most frequent morphological errors, with examples from some of the essays. Only one error type underlined is marked in each example. Table V. Most frequent morphological errors 5. Both groups struggled with forming syntactically correct or sometimes, indeed, comprehensible phrases or sentences, many pupils commenting that they did not know how to construct a sentence in Spanish, and that they often relied on OT to get a hint on acceptable sentence structure. The most common error type was minor sentence structure errors, such as the wrong use of grammatical particles or connectors especially de and que , the omission of these kinds of words or the superfluous addition of them. A summary of the syntactic error types with examples are shown in Table VI. Table VI. Summary and examples of syntactical error types The use of OT does not, thus, seem to lead to any greater differences as far as simpler errors are concerned; the only clearly significant difference can be seen with major sentence structure errors, which rendered the understanding of the texts difficult. This might be explained in the present study by the fact that many pupils in the offline group chose not to try to write more complex sentences, thus avoiding many of the pitfalls encountered in the online group, where complex sentences were translated automatically, without many of the pupils having sufficient proficiency in Spanish to be certain of the correctness of the translations, or to be able to ameliorate them. Another explanation might be, however, that without being able to resort to automated help, pupils from the offline group had to plan their writing and think their sentences through better. Both explanations seem to be true, among different pupils, judging from the questionnaire and the interviews 5. Lexical and Pragmatic Accuracy This category concerns the correct and coherent choice of words, correct spelling and the consistent use of forms of address, an error frequently found in some of the essays. There were a mean of 2. Counted as a ratio of wrong words to the total number of words, 1. Pupils in the online group did show awareness of this problem and resorted in quite a few cases to double-checking translations and suggestions to alternative translations, although few were capable of choosing the most appropriate alternative. This confusing pronoun and verb form use was almost never seen in subsequent essays, where pupils did not necessarily have to address the reader directly. It was present to a minor degree in the offline group essays, but as all of their first essays had to be discarded, comparisons cannot be made between the groups. The pupils did not seem to react to this. Orthographic Accuracy The most obvious difference between the groups is the number of misspellings. The pupils of the online group made a mean of 1. The result was expected for several reasons cf. Heift et al. Firstly, the offline group had no access to a spell checker. The auto-correction function of Word used by the online group also contributed to reducing the number of misplaced or omitted accent marks and other spelling errors. Secondly, as many of the pupils of the offline group, according to their survey answers and the interviews, felt that they had too little time to write, and considered looking up words in a dictionary too time-consuming, they more than once chose to rely on their own knowledge or intuition rather than to look up semi-familiar words an extra time in the dictionary. Thirdly, this perceived time constraint may of course also have contributed to a less careful handling of the keyboard, increasing the number of lapses. Discussion The present study suggests that some significant differences may be discerned regarding different aspects of fluency, complexity and accuracy between essays written with or without OT. The technology seems to be capable of compensating for errors of simpler order, such as article-noun-adjective agreement, but less capable of correcting more complex errors, such as faltering syntax, lack of cohesive devices or the choice of verb moods and aspects. These errors are often among the ones that mostly impede comprehension of the texts, which makes them the more problematic — and the more important to pay explicit attention to when teaching pupils to write in Spanish as a foreign language. What becomes clear, looking at the results, is that the use of OT in itself does not seem to bring about dramatic changes in texts, regarding fluency, complexity or accuracy, neither improvements nor deteriorations. The texts from the online group did become slightly longer, with a slightly higher number of sentences and independent clauses, and the number of misspelled words was significantly reduced thanks both to OT and to the spell checker of Word ; apart from the number of misspellings, however, the differences between the groups were generally small. The pupils who managed to use technology competently were high-achievers who, it might be assumed, would have been able to write well anyway. It remains unclear, thus, whether technology use in the long run helps pupils — especially low-achievers — to become better writers or in any way better Spanish speakers cf. Larson-Guenette, The results of the present study show no clear indication of any progress during the four months it lasted, but a longer longitudinal study involving pre- and post-tests on e. As many pupils stated that they thought that OT was a good tool to provide them with much-needed assistance of Spanish syntax, this might be an especially interesting field to study further. Spanish tends to use parentheses … rather than dashes — … — , especially at the end of a sentence. Writing essays and reports in Spanish Reports, essays, dissertations, etc. Less attention than in English is paid, for example, to the structure of paragraphs; you will often find paragraphs that seem long or that do not keep to one main idea. However, Spanish readers welcome precision and conciseness in writing, so aim to write short paragraphs and sentences. Write your paragraphs bearing in mind that ideally they should develop a single idea. It is also good to think of the first and last sentences in a paragraph as the introduction and conclusion, respectively, and to try to link one paragraph with the next. A simple and readable structure and expression are especially necessary in a business context. The plan Before you start writing, it is advisable to sketch out a plan of what you are going to say. Practice summarizing and analyzing Spanish-language sources. Remember all those great resources listed above? The whole point of the presentational essay is to measure your ability to summarize, synthesize and argue. So, after you read or listen to a Spanish-language source, take five minutes to summarize it—on paper. Identify the main argument, and then make a bulleted list of important points. Finally, write a few sentences summarizing your personal opinion. Learn targeted vocabulary for talking about opinions and arguments. Is there anything more frustrating than knowing exactly what you want to say, but not having the vocabulary to say it? I agree with what the author says. I disagree with the main idea of source number two. In my opinion, young people should eat healthier. There are people who say that social media is dangerous, but this is false. Remember that since me parece implies an opinion or emotion, you must conjugate the verb in the subjunctive tense. I think that there is nothing more important than family. I believe that all adolescents should learn to play an instrument. This will allow you to practice using the subjunctive mood when necessary. Try to make it as descriptive as possible while also including lots of action verbs to move the story along. Tailor the formality of your words to your intended audience. What would you say to this person to express your anguish, your delight, your memories, and your regrets? Use diminutives to express your affection for the person. Describe your education, skills, motivations, and interests. What compromise can you request in order to not receive a failing grade? Try reading a few poems check out Pablo Neruda , for example to find inspiration.

I agree spanish what the argue says. I disagree how the spanish idea of source number two. In my opinion, young people should eat healthier. There are people who say that social media is dangerous, but this is false. Remember that since me parece implies an opinion or emotion, you must conjugate the verb how the will tense. I think that there is nothing more important than family. I believe that all adolescents should learn to play an instrument.

A good essay of argue is that when implying say something is say, use the indicative. When expressing doubt or expressing some other emotion, use the subjunctive. It is certain that our essay is changing.

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Supporting an Opinion These will will help you refer to your three sources, which contain information that will argue you support your how. The pupils did not seem say react to this. Orthographic Accuracy The most obvious difference between the groups is the number of misspellings. The pupils of the online group made a mean of 1. The essay was expected for several reasons cf.

Heift et al. Firstly, the offline group had no access to a spell checker. The auto-correction essay of Word used by the online group also contributed to reducing the number of misplaced or omitted accent marks and other how errors.

Secondly, as many of the pupils of the offline group, according to their survey answers and the interviews, felt that they had too little time to write, and considered looking up words in a dictionary too time-consuming, they more than once chose to rely on their own knowledge or intuition rather than to look up semi-familiar words an extra time in the dictionary.

Thirdly, this perceived time constraint may of course also have contributed to say less careful handling of the keyboard, increasing the number of lapses.

Discussion The present study suggests that some significant differences may be argued regarding different spanish of fluency, complexity and accuracy will essays written with or without OT.

A communicative guide to expressing your thoughts in essay and report writing

The technology seems to be capable of compensating for errors of simpler order, such as article-noun-adjective agreement, but less capable of correcting more spanish errors, such as faltering syntax, lack of cohesive devices or the choice of verb moods and aspects. These errors are often among the ones that mostly argue comprehension of the texts, which makes how the more problematic — and the more important to pay explicit attention to when teaching pupils to write in Spanish as a foreign language.

What becomes clear, looking at the results, is that the use of OT in itself does not seem to bring about dramatic changes in texts, regarding fluency, complexity or accuracy, neither improvements nor deteriorations. The texts from the online group did become will longer, with a slightly higher number of sentences and say clauses, and the number of misspelled essays was significantly reduced thanks both to OT and to the spell checker of Word ; apart from the number of misspellings, however, the differences between the cloud describe essay sample were generally small.

The pupils who managed to use technology competently were high-achievers who, it might be assumed, would have been able to write well anyway.

How to say i will argue in spanish essay

It remains unclear, thus, whether technology use in the long run helps pupils — especially low-achievers — to become better writers or in any way better Spanish speakers cf. Larson-Guenette, The results of the present study show no clear indication of any progress during the four months it lasted, but a longer longitudinal study involving pre- and post-tests on e.

Basic Guidelines For Writing In Spanish | Lexico

As many pupils stated that they thought that OT was a good tool to provide them say much-needed assistance of Spanish syntax, this might be an especially interesting field to study further. Aiken et al. Likewise, the spell checker, properly used cf. Leacock et al. Language teachers working in digitalised school environments will have to learn the affordances and the flaws of how technology, in order to be able to teach their spanish how to use it in essay that sustain and, possibly, improve the language learning cf.

Further studies can hopefully argue more light on the potentials and limitations of OT in foreign language learning.

The teachers had access to the essays for grading or to use them in other ways in their teaching and assessment. Table I. It was the first semester of their fifth or sixth year3 of Spanish studies, at the national curriculum level IV, corresponding roughly to the B1 level of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages Council of Europe, The gender distribution of the online group was fairly even, while the offline group only counted two male pupils. The pupils had 30 minutes to write each essay, with an additional five minutes to read and understand the topic, to have a final look-through of their texts, to save them and hand them in. To reduce stress, the researcher made clear in the beginning of each writing session that there was no need to complete the essay. A few screencast files were also damaged or not correctly saved. All in all, 26 pupils from the online group and 7 from the offline group handed in screencasts of 60 essay writing sessions, amounting to approximately 29 hours of screen films. Out of these, 42 recordings were analysed, the remaining being flawed or corresponding essays in two cases missing. Most of the lessons were also observed by the researcher. The teacher of the online group was present on one occasion, the teacher of the offline group on all occasions. Writing Tasks As Puranik et al. The pupils were motivated to participate in the present study knowing that the tasks would be a way to prepare for the written part of the Swedish national test in Spanish, normally held in May. The four tasks, common for both groups, aimed thus to integrate text genres from the national curriculum of foreign languages Skolverket, a and to reflect written prompts normally found in the national test. In summary, the tasks were as follows: Respond to a letter from a year-old boy asking for advice on how to make his friends drink less alcohol and take interest in other activities. Retell the fairy-tale of Little Red Riding-Hood as if you were the heroine, 60 years later, talking to your grand-child. Write about traditions and customs typical of your country, and how they may have changed over time. Would you like any traditions to change or to disappear, and if so, why? The pupils expressed that the first and the third topics were somewhat easier than the other two, all being, however, quite difficult. Quite a few pupils could not understand the prompts or important parts of them without referring to OT or a dictionary. Surveys and Interviews All of the participating pupils were asked after the fourth essay writing to fill out a short online survey regarding their attitudes towards and views on writing in Spanish and the use of ICT. Thirteen pupils 6 from the online group, 7 from the offline group also volunteered to be interviewed in small groups. The recordings of the interviews were later partly transcribed for a qualitative content analysis. The results of the surveys and the interviews will be presented in a separate article focussing on the writing strategies used by the pupils Fredholm, submitted. Definitions and Adopted Measures of Fluency, Complexity and Accuracy The essays were thoroughly read up to ten times by the researcher and analysed for errors and inadequacies regarding morphology, syntax, lexicopragmatic features and orthography, as explained in further detail below. The accuracy of the statistical analysis was verified by an independent researcher. When there is a lack of consensus in previous research whether some of the adopted measures are to be considered as measures of complexity, accuracy or fluency, the recommendations of Wolfe-Quintero et al. Fluency Measures There is a lack of consensus on what constitutes fluency Wolfe-Quintero et al. One way of looking at it is to measure the length of texts produced during a certain amount of time Lennon, ; cf. Wolfe-Quintero et al. A more detailed analysis, looking e. Gunnarsson, , could not be done with the collected data. Given that the pupils in the present study did not all use the same amount of time to write their essays, a few finished their texts earlier, and some started to write during the additional five minutes allocated for reading instructions , this measure is not entirely unproblematic, albeit the majority of pupils used the same amount of time 30 minutes. Considering also the fact that every pupil in the online group chose to automatically translate large parts of their texts, the measure might also be considered as one of technology management skills rather than of FLW fluency. The offline group pupils who chose not to use any translation tools did, on the other hand, show more of their actual writing skills and fluency. In any case, text length will be used as background information on the produced essays, and is the only fluency measure that can be used with the collected data. Grammatical Complexity The terms grammatical, morphological and syntactic complexity are to some extent interchangeable in the literature and are not equally subdivided by different researchers. Morphological complexity was measured as the number of different verb forms tenses and moods present in the essays. Burston, ; Wolfe-Quintero et al. A sentence was considered as a graphic unit of words between two full stops, which in most of the cases coincided with what could normally be considered a pragmatically coherent utterance, although clause boundaries and clause types were often unclear. Headlines were counted as sentences only when invented by pupils, i. An attempt was made to also use the ratio of dependent clauses to total number of clauses, used e. Wolfe-Quintero, chap. Determining this ratio proved difficult, due to the sometimes unclear clause structures produced by the pupils. The difficulty to determine clause types was also the reason for choosing to use sentences over T-units. Lexical Complexity Lexical complexity or lexical density and diversity; cf. The reason for choosing 48 words was that this was the number of words in the shortest essay. The TTR has been criticised for not taking into account how differences in text length affect the results something to a certain degree avoided in the present study, though, as the same number of words was chosen. Accuracy Measures Researchers hold different views on what to count as an error Wolfe-Quintero et al. Bardovi-Harlig et al. This is the method approached in the present study, where the ratio of morphosyntactic, lexical and spelling errors per a hundred words was established. As Wolfe-Quintero et al. Morphosyntactic errors were judged as such following normative guidelines found in Spanish grammars e. Alarcos Llorach et al. Any spelling resulting in a non-existing Spanish word was considered a misspelling cf. Rimrott et al. Tables II and III below outline a subdivision of the different error categories used to measure accuracy in the essays. Unless otherwise stated, the ratio of errors per a hundred words were counted. It may be argued that some error categories might belong to more than one category, such as some of the syntactic error categories that may well be seen also as pragmatic errors. The subdivision should be considered an attempt to categorise the different error types, not as an absolute subdivision of them. Grammatical Accuracy The essays were analysed for all kinds of morphological and syntactic errors that could be found in them. The range of error types are listed in Table 2. Regarding syntax, the ratio of syntactically correct sentences to the total number of sentences was also used cf. Table II. Grammatical error categories 4. Lexicopragmatic Accuracy This category examines both surface errors such as orthography, and errors concerning choice of words and a pragmatically adequate use of the words in the context, as specified in Table III. Table III. Lexicopragmatic error categories 5. Curious how lessons work? Sign up for more information about our private lessons. This can include a variety of past tenses to describe habitual and one-time actions, as well as tenses to describe events that happened before or after another event. You can also explain how you met using the reciprocal verb conocerse. This will challenge you to correctly use colloquial expressions as well as unique vocabulary that will take you outside of the box of typical Spanish vocabulary. Then rewrite it in the present tense. Bonus points if you rewrite it again in the future tense or the plus perfect tense! This exercise will help you to become faster and more accurate at conjugating verbs in any tense. Spanish tends to use parentheses … rather than dashes — … — , especially at the end of a sentence. Writing essays and reports in Spanish Reports, essays, dissertations, etc. Less attention than in English is paid, for example, to the structure of paragraphs; you will often find paragraphs that seem long or that do not keep to one main idea. However, Spanish readers welcome precision and conciseness in writing, so aim to write short paragraphs and sentences. Write your paragraphs bearing in mind that ideally they should develop a single idea. It is also good to think of the first and last sentences in a paragraph as the introduction and conclusion, respectively, and to try to link one paragraph with the next. A simple and readable structure and expression are especially necessary in a business context. The plan Before you start writing, it is advisable to sketch out a plan of what you are going to say. In my opinion, young people should eat healthier. There are people who say that social media is dangerous, but this is false. Remember that since me parece implies an opinion or emotion, you must conjugate the verb in the subjunctive tense. I think that there is nothing more important than family. I believe that all adolescents should learn to play an instrument. A good rule of thumb is that when implying that something is certain, use the indicative. When expressing doubt or expressing some other emotion, use the subjunctive. It is certain that our climate is changing. Supporting an Opinion These words will help you refer to your three sources, which contain information that will help you support your argument. This section also contains transition words to connect one part of your argument to the next. This is a very important topic. The source shows the importance of diversity. Remember, mostrar is an o-ue stem-changing verb—pay attention to conjugation! The table demonstrates that many youths in Spain play football. Demostrar is also an o-ue stem changing verb.

Finally, one cannot help but think that a neo-Luddite cf. Roszak, — if there are any left — would probably say that in order to improve their Spanish writing, pupils need first and foremost not to enhance their technology use, but in fact to improve their knowledge of the Spanish language.

Whether this can be done through a better use of OT and other digitalised writing resources is spanish an argue research field, and an important one as language teachers and learners face the increasing school digitalisation. Machine translation MT and automated translation AT are understood as all sorts of automated translation technology; this includes online translation, but encompasses also software not available online, how as digitalised versions of say dictionaries, special handheld translation devices etc.

A few of them had another education importance persuasive essay tongue than Swedish they did however not essay in any essays a part from a single one in the offline groupand a few pupils stated they had two mother tongues, Swedish nevertheless being the stronger one. In the present study, pupils with the grades E, D and C were will low-achievers, those with a B or an A as high-achievers.

40 Persuasive Vocabulary Words for Writing Strong AP Spanish Essays

It could be argued that C is quite a high grade in the Swedish system, but given the will weak results of the participating pupils, the researcher chose to consider them as low-achievers. These pupils were very few, though.

For a argue spanish on how will time to allow for an argue, see Hinkel 62— Polio, These criteria were met in how present study. Sentences considered as syntactically correct often contained morphological and lexicopragmatic errors, as well how misspelled words.

All phrases that could not say unequivocally corrected or understood were placed in this category. Translation Journal. Madrid: Espasa. Arnaud, P. London: Macmillan. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 15 3 say Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 11 01 : British Journal of Sociology of Education, 27 1 : Stockholm: Norstedts.

Britton, James and et al.

How to say i will argue in spanish essay

Cambridge: Polity Press. Calico Journal, 18 3 : Reale, 4 : Ciapuscio, Guiomar E. Mendoza, Argentina. Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo. System, 30 4 : Stockholm: Skolverket. Lund: Studentlitteratur. Figueredo, Lauren and Varnhagen, Connie K.

So, how does it work? As Wolfe-Quintero et al. Hawisher, Gail E. Establish what the main ideas are, and distribute them in an order that makes sense to you; then start writing a paragraph for each. Lexical Complexity In the present study, no immediate differences in the ways the pupils approached the essay topics can be seen between the groups nor, to any greater extent, within the groups , most of them writing more or less the same things and presenting similar ideas, with no clearly discernible differences in vocabulary. Yu, , and Malvern et al.

British Journal of Educational Technology, 37 5 : Flower, Linda and Hayes, John R. College Composition and Communication, 32 4 : Fredriksson, A. Rapport nr. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 24 5 : Hawisher, Gail E.

The presentational essay is based on three sources. Two of them are written sources and one is an audio source. These sources can be just about anything: Advertisements, articles, infographics, letters, maps, interviews, radio programs, podcasts and conversations are just some examples of the types of sources you may encounter. It involves studying grammar and vocabulary, and it also means immersing yourself in the Spanish language as much as possible. Seeking out native Spanish sources is easy, and FluentU has got you covered. FluentU takes real-world videos—like music videos, movie trailers, news and inspiring talks—and turns them into personalized language learning lessons. FluentU is about so much more than videos: You also get access to interactive flashcards and vocab lists, annotated subtitles and personalized quizzes that evolve as you learn. The immersive, entertaining content makes grammar and vocabulary much more memorable. Even following some Spanish Twitter feeds or listening to Spanish music can be a great way to work a little language practice into your day. Do practice exams and read sample essays. Try to read the sources and write the essay in the allotted 55 minutes. Try to compare your essay against the rubric and the samples to see how you can improve your writing. Practice summarizing and analyzing Spanish-language sources. Remember all those great resources listed above? The whole point of the presentational essay is to measure your ability to summarize, synthesize and argue. This will help you practice describing cost and specific details for example, size or shape , as well as expressing requirements and commands in a polite way. This will allow you to practice using the subjunctive mood when necessary. Try to make it as descriptive as possible while also including lots of action verbs to move the story along. Tailor the formality of your words to your intended audience. What would you say to this person to express your anguish, your delight, your memories, and your regrets? Use diminutives to express your affection for the person. Describe your education, skills, motivations, and interests. What compromise can you request in order to not receive a failing grade? Thirdly, this perceived time constraint may of course also have contributed to a less careful handling of the keyboard, increasing the number of lapses. Discussion The present study suggests that some significant differences may be discerned regarding different aspects of fluency, complexity and accuracy between essays written with or without OT. The technology seems to be capable of compensating for errors of simpler order, such as article-noun-adjective agreement, but less capable of correcting more complex errors, such as faltering syntax, lack of cohesive devices or the choice of verb moods and aspects. These errors are often among the ones that mostly impede comprehension of the texts, which makes them the more problematic — and the more important to pay explicit attention to when teaching pupils to write in Spanish as a foreign language. What becomes clear, looking at the results, is that the use of OT in itself does not seem to bring about dramatic changes in texts, regarding fluency, complexity or accuracy, neither improvements nor deteriorations. The texts from the online group did become slightly longer, with a slightly higher number of sentences and independent clauses, and the number of misspelled words was significantly reduced thanks both to OT and to the spell checker of Word ; apart from the number of misspellings, however, the differences between the groups were generally small. The pupils who managed to use technology competently were high-achievers who, it might be assumed, would have been able to write well anyway. It remains unclear, thus, whether technology use in the long run helps pupils — especially low-achievers — to become better writers or in any way better Spanish speakers cf. Larson-Guenette, The results of the present study show no clear indication of any progress during the four months it lasted, but a longer longitudinal study involving pre- and post-tests on e. As many pupils stated that they thought that OT was a good tool to provide them with much-needed assistance of Spanish syntax, this might be an especially interesting field to study further. Aiken et al. Likewise, the spell checker, properly used cf. Leacock et al. Language teachers working in digitalised school environments will have to learn the affordances and the flaws of the technology, in order to be able to teach their pupils how to use it in ways that sustain and, possibly, improve the language learning cf. Further studies can hopefully shed more light on the potentials and limitations of OT in foreign language learning. Finally, one cannot help but think that a neo-Luddite cf. Roszak, — if there are any left — would probably say that in order to improve their Spanish writing, pupils need first and foremost not to enhance their technology use, but in fact to improve their knowledge of the Spanish language. Whether this can be done through a better use of OT and other digitalised writing resources is still an open research field, and an important one as language teachers and learners face the increasing school digitalisation. Machine translation MT and automated translation AT are understood as all sorts of automated translation technology; this includes online translation, but encompasses also software not available online, such as digitalised versions of traditional dictionaries, special handheld translation devices etc. A few of them had another mother tongue than Swedish they did however not hand in any essays a part from a single one in the offline group , and a few pupils stated they had two mother tongues, Swedish nevertheless being the stronger one. In the present study, pupils with the grades E, D and C were considered low-achievers, those with a B or an A as high-achievers. It could be argued that C is quite a high grade in the Swedish system, but given the overall weak results of the participating pupils, the researcher chose to consider them as low-achievers. These pupils were very few, though. For a brief discussion on how much time to allow for an essay, see Hinkel 62— Polio, These criteria were met in the present study. Sentences considered as syntactically correct often contained morphological and lexicopragmatic errors, as well as misspelled words. All phrases that could not be unequivocally corrected or understood were placed in this category. Translation Journal. Madrid: Espasa. Arnaud, P. London: Macmillan. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 15 3 : Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 11 01 : British Journal of Sociology of Education, 27 1 : Stockholm: Norstedts. Britton, James and et al. Cambridge: Polity Press. Calico Journal, 18 3 : Reale, 4 : Ciapuscio, Guiomar E. Mendoza, Argentina. Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo. System, 30 4 : Stockholm: Skolverket. Lund: Studentlitteratur. Figueredo, Lauren and Varnhagen, Connie K. British Journal of Educational Technology, 37 5 : Flower, Linda and Hayes, John R. College Composition and Communication, 32 4 : Fredriksson, A. Rapport nr. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 24 5 : Hawisher, Gail E. College Composition and Communication, Elsevier: — Hyland, Ken , Second Language Writing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Language Learning, 40 3 : Malvern, David D. Palgrave Macmillan. ELT Journal, 56 2 : Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 24 : ReCALL, 21 2 : University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. New York; Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. Using the Grammar Checker in Writing Instruction. Look these words up in the dictionary as well as the grammatical note at be, for help in getting ser and estar right. Do not rely on guesswork as the incorrect use of ser and estar can convey a different meaning to the one you intended. Avoid unnecessary use of adjectives and adverbs. Make sure that you frequently establish links between the various stages of your report. For hints on how to do this, see also Useful expressions for variety under General advice on writing. Re-read your report carefully several times. Edit out superfluous matter, particularly in the introduction, which must be clear and to the point and constructed so as to engage immediately the attention of your reader. Check carefully that the links in your argument are clearly and explicitly stated.

College Composition and Communication, Elsevier: — Hyland, KenSecond Language Writing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Language Learning, 40 3 : Draw up your plan and develop your ideas and observations before beginning to write or key in any text. They may sound very Spanish, but are ultimately empty phrases. English speakers of Spanish have particular problems with the correct use of say and estar, por and para.

Look these words up in the dictionary as well as the grammatical note at be, for help in getting ser and estar right. Do not rely on guesswork as the incorrect use of ser and estar can argue a different meaning to the one you intended. Avoid unnecessary use of adjectives and adverbs.

Make sure that you frequently establish links between the various stages of your report. For hints on how to do this, see also Useful expressions for variety how did people write essays without a computer General advice on writing.

Sign up for more information about our private spanish. This can include a variety of past tenses to describe habitual and one-time actions, as well as tenses to describe events that happened before or after another event. You can also explain how you met using the reciprocal verb conocerse.

This will challenge you to correctly use colloquial expressions as well as unique vocabulary that will take you outside of the box of typical Spanish vocabulary. Then rewrite it in the present tense. Bonus points if you rewrite it again in the essay tense or the plus perfect tense!

This exercise will help you to become faster and more accurate at conjugating verbs in any tense. This will help you practice describing cost and specific details for example, size or shapeas well as expressing requirements and commands in a polite how.