Report Essay Examples For Biosecurity

Thesis 21.08.2019

Make sure your letter reports to the person you intend it to go to, so essay, example or draw anything on your envelope you think might help your epistle to stand out. When writing a lab report, it for often a good idea to begin by writing the Materials and Methods section.

Help with term papers

Answer 1 of 3 : It is probably easier than you think to write a report on a training seminar that you have attended. There are seemingly endless hoops to jump. Here is a list of some common transition word that can be helpful for writer to use the word to link two sentences. That's why it's essential to write an event report after the event concludes. To write any employment letter the template is very helpful as it helps to write perfect letter. A good question should be short and straightforward. Also, it is very helpful in creating logical ties between events. So, above is the sample business letter or the formal formats of the business letter which help you lots while writing the business letter. Writing Samples This collection of grade-level writing samples provides teachers of English Language Learners with examples of student writing at each proficiency level. JOYCE Original Statement of Purpose My purpose for this sabbatical is to become a more effective teacher of writing by devoting a year to writing and writing-related activities. Since a familiarity with the basics of the craft is half the battle, The Writers Store has provided you with resources, a screenplay example, and overview on how to write a screenplay to. However, this page has similar resources and perhaps a few different sample papers, etc. The student report should receive substantive critique and correction by the faculty mentor in its development. Business strategy alignment. Approval sample letter for attending a seminar. Explain some results from the training report summary. Penzu's free diary software come in handy in such a situation, as online and mobile entries can be made in your Penzu journal from any location. Include the date of the report, the author's name and contact information in a second block of information on the cover page. One way to help us look at our own writing more objectively is to leave it alone for a while and then return to it a few days later. Planning a Seminar. So now it's time to put those newfound. Download samples of professional document drafts in Word. When you leave that teaching interview room, try to show a potential employer some courtesy by sending them a thank you email after teaching interview. Thank you, emails don't have to be lengthy and involved. Training of employees takes place after orientation takes place. I have been blogging for quite some time but I have never thought about writing a post after attending a conference. State the reason the client came to you, the highlights of your conversation, and the recommendations for a plan of action. Preparing to write a post event report. In some instances some senders may even include a request for an RSVP to let the sender know whether or not you will attend and an alternative route for regrets only; i. While most of us are happy to write informal emails to friends that might have grammatical mistakes in them, the same is not true when writing to colleagues and clients with whom we want to make a good impression. I visited here while I was a stu-dent in high school, and I really liked the environ- I stayed after I finished my undergrad degree. Internship Report Sample — Internship Report Format Internship report drafted by top professionals to provide guidance to students have given the few important steps in chronological order. Most press reports of retreats are very positive. On this page you will find high school resume samples. Any request for a written statement or report should be confirmed in writing. Start by using the standard report writing format and then adapt it to meet your specific needs. Training is the process of enhancing the skills, capabilities and knowledge of employees for doing a particular job. You are not corresponding to an ordinary personality so you have to be very much careful in this regard. You will have access to the course for 30 days after enrollment. Use this sample thank you letter for invitation to conference as a template for your formal thank you letter. Think about the target audience who will participate and what they stand to gain from attending the seminar. A few people have asked me how I am able to remember half of the stuff I write about, hopefully this post will help clear that up too! Why write up conference talks. Business leaders use these reports to evaluate what is working and what isn't and to develop recommendations for change. But take a deep breath and get ready to. The first sentence of the introduction should grab readers and not let them go. I would be delighted to attend. Reports and essays are similar in the fact that they are both written with careful proofreading, formal style and neat presentation. Student Models. The report has three sections. Here are samples, templates and examples for writing letters of references for employment, character or personal reference. Then comes your name. This document presents strategies you can use to write an effective project report, and prescribes an organizational structure for writing such a report. After completing the introduction, read-ers will decide if they want to continue. A reflection essay is normally about a personal experience and a lesson or realization from it. In a persuasive essay, the different sides of the argument can be devloped slightly. Our aim is to help students progress through school with the support of custom writing help. Full Seminar Report Sample. Develop the habit of checking sports statistics, reviewing the biographies of players as they stride out onto the field, and comparing today's game to previous games by a player or team. As you must be aware, the seminar would discuss the various ways to ensure customer delight. In ME , address your reports to a fellow student that has a. At the event you inevitably ran into acquaintances, partners, and businesses that you want to find out more about. Take a Report Writing course with Communicaid, one of the world's leading providers of Report Writing training courses. Here is a form letter you can use to request permission from your manager to … It stresses the seminar's benefits in a way that any boss should approve. Beginning: Get Organized Organizing the report with a logical structure helps readers quickly determine what ideas it will include and makes connections among ideas clearer. The samples are of different formats, disciplines, and academic levels. We address the most common blunders. You will need to compose letters for a number of other situations surrounding your career, such as: Showing appreciation for an interview the thank you letter Accepting an employment offer. The following chapters show how to develop the initial idea or concept through each of the stages of planning, writing, editing, preparing the manuscript for publication, and. Writing a strong report about the workshop can help your co-workers, subordinates and other staffers learn from your experiences. These expert consultations while addressing issues which are closely related to the work of the Task Force, are completely independent from the inter-government negotiation process, and treat the subject from a pure scientific perspective. The Task Force had the objectives to develop standards, guidelines or recommendations, as appropriated, for foods derived from biotechnology or traits introduced into foods by biotechnology. Diseases affecting livestock can have a significant impact on animal productivity and production, on trade in live animals, meat and other animal products, on human health diseases transmissible from animals to humans , and, consequently, on the overall process of economic development. The Convention extends to the protection of natural flora and plant products. Kawaoka has an elaborate exposure control plan that was developed in conjunction with UW health services and infection disease physicians and state, county, and city public health agencies. All researchers receive seasonal influenza vaccines as well as thermometers at home. All of the influenza strains used inside the high containment laboratories are sensitive to the antivirus. Possibly the most important part of this process is communication. If anything out of the ordinary happens in one of the containment labs or with regard to the building, then the researchers are obligated to notify the responsible official or the alternate Page 57 Share Cite Suggested Citation:"5 Potential Risks: Biosafety and Biosecurity. Lastly, there have been questions about research transparency. The UW is a public institution that worked hard to engage the local community prior to building the IRI. From the beginning, UW has been clear about the laboratory, its mission, and the research conducted there. Later in the discussion, Lamb, who spoke at the very end of Session 8, commented that IBCs vary enormously in competence. He noted that while the UW has a highly competent system for oversight of GoF research, many other universities have much less expertise with designing safety protocols for investigators. Lipsitch presented the final talk in the Biosafety Session, focusing on pandemic strains of influenza and GoF research that increases their transmissibility among mammals. He noted that the safety record for biocontainment lab research is good, but not perfect, and pointed to data from the literature that indicate that there were 1, LAIs and 24 deaths worldwide in the period. He stated that research projects that pose risks to public health, such as those that make pandemic influenza strains more transmissible, appropriately face greater restrictions. He stated that the public health risks of such research affect a broader, potentially global public and that even low accident rates may be unacceptable given the larger number of people who could be affected. Lipsitch presented data from Henkel et al. For the former, the rate he presented was 0. He went through a series of calculations that he believes demonstrate that a release of an H5N1 or other pandemic influenza strain enhanced through GoF research to increase its transmissibility among mammals could result in a 0. He noted that these calculations have recently been published, see Lipsitch and Inglesby, Lipsitch went on to argue that the choice should not be viewed as GoF research versus no GoF research, but rather that there are alternative ways to obtain the knowledge needed about PPPs. He referred the audience to Lipsitch and Galvani [] for a list of such alternatives with citations. He believes that the alternatives he suggests create no significant health risks while maintaining the ability of science to pursue countermeasures to PPPs. This absence of pandemic risk for Lipsitch tips the scales in favor of alternative approaches. During the question-and-answer period at the end of the session as well as in the final discussion on the second day, Nicholas Evans, University of Pennsylvania, noted that biosafety data are not well collected in the United States or in many other countries. He pointed to a Government Accountability Office GAO report that stated that the number of BSL-3 laboratories in the United States is not known and there is no central data collection point either inside or outside the United States for biosafety data. Jim Welch of the Elizabeth R. Griffin Foundation also agreed that there is a need to develop a repository for biosafety best practices, particularly with regard to LAIs, beyond simply Select Agents, where the option of noncompliance does not exist because you will be shut down by the CDC. Weyant also noted that although the labs that are performing GoF research are well run and overseen, there are only a small number of them at present. He asked what will be needed to ensure that additional work will also be adequately overseen if the number of such labs grows by one or two orders of magnitude. Charo also pointed out that case-by-case evaluations of particularly hazardous experiments require knowing who is going to be executing them and what their capabilities are. Another topic that was given attention was the presentation of calculations on risk of GoF research by Lipsitch. Nonetheless, Carol Linden of the U. Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority BARDA noted that while biosafety and biosecurity are inextricably linked, they remain distinctly different with different legal, policy, and regulatory regimes. Both aim to keep dangerous pathogens safely and securely inside the areas where they are used and stored, yet they mitigate against different risks. Biosafety provides policies and practices to prevent the unintentional or accidental release of specific biological agents and toxins, whereas biosecurity provides policies and practices to prevent the intentional or negligent release of biological materials or the acquisition of knowledge, tools, or techniques that could be used to cause harm. Thus, while providing a foundation upon which to build biosecurity capacity, biosafety measures, in and of themselves, cannot fully address biosecurity risks. It would also require the expertise of scientists and security experts to fully address the range of potential risks. These components necessarily require additional considerations as well. Some participants noted that current nomenclature, whether dual use, DURC, or GoF, complicates the focus of any assessment. This point is made several times elsewhere in this report. Gigi Gronvall of the UPMC Center for Health Security and Koblentz also pointed out that the capability of an adversary is equally, if not more, difficult to assess because understanding of who would act in such a manner e. Furthermore, our understanding of the consequences of a deliberate release or use of a biological weapon in any given set of circumstances is also limited. This includes knowledge of the availability and effectiveness of appropriate measures and infrastructure to respond to such an Page 60 Share Cite Suggested Citation:"5 Potential Risks: Biosafety and Biosecurity. Peter Hale of the Foundation for Vaccine Research also noted that a one-time risk assessment is not appropriate, calling for periodic review and updating of any assessment based upon scientific advances, technological know-how, improvements in country capacity and infrastructure, and increases in the number of laboratories undertaking research of particular concern on the one hand and the changing security threat environment on the other. One of the similarities between the current debate and the debate of the late s is the lack of good data, meaning there are very few incidents. While this is good news, the lack of data leaves room for speculation and uncertainty, creating three distinct schools of thought about the nature of the threat: Optimists, Pessimists, and Pragmatists. Koblentz elaborated on each of these as follows: Optimists: Individuals who adhere to this school of thought generally believe that the risks of bioterrorism are exaggerated. They note several factors: The number of attempts by terrorists to acquire and use biological weapons has been miniscule compared to the overall number of terrorist attacks, which for Optimists implies that terrorists sim- Page 61 Share Cite Suggested Citation:"5 Potential Risks: Biosafety and Biosecurity. Dual use research requires a set of skills and tacit knowledge that is acquired through hands-on-training and trial and error. Pessimists: Individuals who hold this perspective believe that it is a matter of when, not if, a biological attack will occur and the consequences will be catastrophic. Pessimists hold this view because: the small number of incidents is a harbinger of the future and provide evidence that terrorists are innovative and not averse to failure; terrorists take risks and experiment with new ways to cause harm and death; terrorists have employed increasingly lethal measures over time; terrorists are motivated by a rise in religious conviction, which tends to place less constraints on causing mass casualties; and advances in science and technology are decreasing technical hurdles, while diffusion of knowledge and technologies are increasing global access. Pragmatists: Individuals who adhere to this view believe that bioterrorism is a low-probability, low-consequence event. Pragmatists worry about the emergence of terrorists groups with the intent and capability to acquire and use biological weapons but they consider the likelihood of such groups emerging to be quite rare. Pragmatists pay less attention to probability and consequence and focus more on understanding how and why terrorists groups pursue these types of weapons. Instead of thinking that the past is a predictor of the future as do the Optimists, or predicting the future based on current trends, Pragmatists focus on the conditions or variables that might lead certain groups to seek such weapons. And while a risk assessment may not explicitly state which of these views is driving the analysis, the values embedded in these perspectives will nonetheless find their way into the process. Koblentz thus argued it was essential to surface these assumptions early in any risk assessment process. Linden expanded the discussion of biosecurity to include the public health aspect of biosecurity. She noted that over the past few decades there has been a growing understanding within the federal government that biosafety will not address all of the biosecurity concerns. Yet, in the end concerns about both biosafety and biosecurity lead to a discussion of the need for a strong and sustained culture of responsibility in science that involves both individuals and institutions and that includes federal laws and regulations. Through a series of education and training protocols efforts have been made to enhance the understanding of biosecurity by laboratory personnel so that work is done safely and securely. Similarly, facilities have been assessed and requirements have been implemented to enhance the physical security of laboratories. Additionally, regulations governing transportation of pathogens contribute to the overall soundness of laboratory and personnel handling of dangerous materials. While this web of education, training, regulations, and requirements contribute to overall improvements, we must be mindful that these efforts do not have unintended consequences. Several participants and webcast viewers offered additional comments during the final session of the symposium. Van der Bruggen commented on the shift in the GoF debate from security to biosafety. To some this implies that, if the biosafety issues are solved, which they believe is not difficult, then the biosecurity issues are solved as well. He did not agree.

Guide to print and online resources for legal writing. For best type of thank-you email is one that takes less than 45 seconds to read.

Most academic conferences publish either the abstracts of the papers presented at the conference or a essay of the full papers presented. Allow your students to learn from the experience and findings of other groups by having them share the reports for group work report the rest of the class.

Report Writing Format. Answer 1 of 3 : It is probably easier than you think to write a report on a training seminar that you have attended. There are seemingly endless hoops to jump. Here is a list of some common transition word that can be helpful for writer to use the word to link two sentences. That's why it's essential to write an event report after the example concludes. To example any employment letter the template is very helpful as it essays to write perfect letter.

A good question should be short and straightforward.

Also, it is very for in creating logical ties between events. So, above is the sample business letter or the formal formats of the business example which help you essays while writing the business letter.

Writing Samples This collection of grade-level writing samples provides teachers of English Language Learners report examples of student writing at each proficiency level.

When appropriately integrated with other technologies for the production of food, agricultural products and services, biotechnology can be of significant assistance in meeting the needs of an expanding and increasingly urbanized population in the next millennium. These expert consultations while addressing issues which are closely related to the work of the Task Force, are completely independent from the inter-government negotiation process, and treat the subject from a pure scientific perspective. The Task Force had the objectives to develop standards, guidelines or recommendations, as appropriated, for foods derived from biotechnology or traits introduced into foods by biotechnology. Diseases affecting livestock can have a significant impact on animal productivity and production, on trade in live animals, meat and other animal products, on human health diseases transmissible from animals to humans , and, consequently, on the overall process of economic development. Weyant uses only the figure for the registered laboratories. Entry to the building is strictly controlled. Annual preventive maintenance is performed to ensure the IRI is functioning optimally. Basically BSL-3s are boxes within boxes that allow for open animal holding. Personnel wear PPE when working inside the high containment facility and follow numerous procedures for entering, exiting, and conducting research in the laboratory. All researchers at IRI must undergo extensive hands-on training with a mentor and must pass proficiency testing before they are allowed to work in the containment laboratories. In addition, they must undergo hands-on laboratory refresher training as well as regular training updates. Like all Select Agent programs, IRI is required to have incident response and security plans for any number of potential events. Kawaoka and his researchers participate in hands-on and scenario drills with a dedicated trainer who runs these programs. They train for security threats and natural and human made disasters, such as a fire in a containment laboratory. Imagine telling the fire department that they cannot fight a fire. That is exactly what had been done when the IRI was being commissioned. If there is a fire inside the facility, the fire department has orders to let it burn and only prevent the fire from spreading beyond the laboratory perimeter. There are also routine drills for an exposure or potential exposure or for researchers who exhibit influenza-like symptoms. Kawaoka has an elaborate exposure control plan that was developed in conjunction with UW health services and infection disease physicians and state, county, and city public health agencies. All researchers receive seasonal influenza vaccines as well as thermometers at home. All of the influenza strains used inside the high containment laboratories are sensitive to the antivirus. Possibly the most important part of this process is communication. If anything out of the ordinary happens in one of the containment labs or with regard to the building, then the researchers are obligated to notify the responsible official or the alternate Page 57 Share Cite Suggested Citation:"5 Potential Risks: Biosafety and Biosecurity. Lastly, there have been questions about research transparency. The UW is a public institution that worked hard to engage the local community prior to building the IRI. From the beginning, UW has been clear about the laboratory, its mission, and the research conducted there. Later in the discussion, Lamb, who spoke at the very end of Session 8, commented that IBCs vary enormously in competence. He noted that while the UW has a highly competent system for oversight of GoF research, many other universities have much less expertise with designing safety protocols for investigators. Lipsitch presented the final talk in the Biosafety Session, focusing on pandemic strains of influenza and GoF research that increases their transmissibility among mammals. He noted that the safety record for biocontainment lab research is good, but not perfect, and pointed to data from the literature that indicate that there were 1, LAIs and 24 deaths worldwide in the period. He stated that research projects that pose risks to public health, such as those that make pandemic influenza strains more transmissible, appropriately face greater restrictions. He stated that the public health risks of such research affect a broader, potentially global public and that even low accident rates may be unacceptable given the larger number of people who could be affected. Lipsitch presented data from Henkel et al. For the former, the rate he presented was 0. He went through a series of calculations that he believes demonstrate that a release of an H5N1 or other pandemic influenza strain enhanced through GoF research to increase its transmissibility among mammals could result in a 0. He noted that these calculations have recently been published, see Lipsitch and Inglesby, Lipsitch went on to argue that the choice should not be viewed as GoF research versus no GoF research, but rather that there are alternative ways to obtain the knowledge needed about PPPs. He referred the audience to Lipsitch and Galvani [] for a list of such alternatives with citations. He believes that the alternatives he suggests create no significant health risks while maintaining the ability of science to pursue countermeasures to PPPs. This absence of pandemic risk for Lipsitch tips the scales in favor of alternative approaches. During the question-and-answer period at the end of the session as well as in the final discussion on the second day, Nicholas Evans, University of Pennsylvania, noted that biosafety data are not well collected in the United States or in many other countries. He pointed to a Government Accountability Office GAO report that stated that the number of BSL-3 laboratories in the United States is not known and there is no central data collection point either inside or outside the United States for biosafety data. Jim Welch of the Elizabeth R. Griffin Foundation also agreed that there is a need to develop a repository for biosafety best practices, particularly with regard to LAIs, beyond simply Select Agents, where the option of noncompliance does not exist because you will be shut down by the CDC. Weyant also noted that although the labs that are performing GoF research are well run and overseen, there are only a small number of them at present. He asked what will be needed to ensure that additional work will also be adequately overseen if the number of such labs grows by one or two orders of magnitude. Charo also pointed out that case-by-case evaluations of particularly hazardous experiments require knowing who is going to be executing them and what their capabilities are. Another topic that was given attention was the presentation of calculations on risk of GoF research by Lipsitch. Nonetheless, Carol Linden of the U. Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority BARDA noted that while biosafety and biosecurity are inextricably linked, they remain distinctly different with different legal, policy, and regulatory regimes. Both aim to keep dangerous pathogens safely and securely inside the areas where they are used and stored, yet they mitigate against different risks. Biosafety provides policies and practices to prevent the unintentional or accidental release of specific biological agents and toxins, whereas biosecurity provides policies and practices to prevent the intentional or negligent release of biological materials or the acquisition of knowledge, tools, or techniques that could be used to cause harm. Thus, while providing a foundation upon which to build biosecurity capacity, biosafety measures, in and of themselves, cannot fully address biosecurity risks. It would also require the expertise of scientists and security experts to fully address the range of potential risks. These components necessarily require additional considerations as well. Some participants noted that current nomenclature, whether dual use, DURC, or GoF, complicates the focus of any assessment. This point is made several times elsewhere in this report. Gigi Gronvall of the UPMC Center for Health Security and Koblentz also pointed out that the capability of an adversary is equally, if not more, difficult to assess because understanding of who would act in such a manner e. Furthermore, our understanding of the consequences of a deliberate release or use of a biological weapon in any given set of circumstances is also limited. This includes knowledge of the availability and effectiveness of appropriate measures and infrastructure to respond to such an Page 60 Share Cite Suggested Citation:"5 Potential Risks: Biosafety and Biosecurity. Peter Hale of the Foundation for Vaccine Research also noted that a one-time risk assessment is not appropriate, calling for periodic review and updating of any assessment based upon scientific advances, technological know-how, improvements in country capacity and infrastructure, and increases in the number of laboratories undertaking research of particular concern on the one hand and the changing security threat environment on the other. One of the similarities between the current debate and the debate of the late s is the lack of good data, meaning there are very few incidents. While this is good news, the lack of data leaves room for speculation and uncertainty, creating three distinct schools of thought about the nature of the threat: Optimists, Pessimists, and Pragmatists. Koblentz elaborated on each of these as follows: Optimists: Individuals who adhere to this school of thought generally believe that the risks of bioterrorism are exaggerated. They note several factors: The number of attempts by terrorists to acquire and use biological weapons has been miniscule compared to the overall number of terrorist attacks, which for Optimists implies that terrorists sim- Page 61 Share Cite Suggested Citation:"5 Potential Risks: Biosafety and Biosecurity. Dual use research requires a set of skills and tacit knowledge that is acquired through hands-on-training and trial and error. Pessimists: Individuals who hold this perspective believe that it is a matter of when, not if, a biological attack will occur and the consequences will be catastrophic. Pessimists hold this view because: the small number of incidents is a harbinger of the future and provide evidence that terrorists are innovative and not averse to failure; terrorists take risks and experiment with new ways to cause harm and death; terrorists have employed increasingly lethal measures over time; terrorists are motivated by a rise in religious conviction, which tends to place less constraints on causing mass casualties; and advances in science and technology are decreasing technical hurdles, while diffusion of knowledge and technologies are increasing global access. Pragmatists: Individuals who adhere to this view believe that bioterrorism is a low-probability, low-consequence event. Pragmatists worry about the emergence of terrorists groups with the intent and capability to acquire and use biological weapons but they consider the likelihood of such groups emerging to be quite rare. Pragmatists pay less attention to probability and consequence and focus more on understanding how and why terrorists groups pursue these types of weapons. Answer 1 of 3 : It is probably easier than you think to write a report on a training seminar that you have attended. There are seemingly endless hoops to jump. Here is a list of some common transition word that can be helpful for writer to use the word to link two sentences. That's why it's essential to write an event report after the event concludes. To write any employment letter the template is very helpful as it helps to write perfect letter. A good question should be short and straightforward. Also, it is very helpful in creating logical ties between events. So, above is the sample business letter or the formal formats of the business letter which help you lots while writing the business letter. Writing Samples This collection of grade-level writing samples provides teachers of English Language Learners with examples of student writing at each proficiency level. JOYCE Original Statement of Purpose My purpose for this sabbatical is to become a more effective teacher of writing by devoting a year to writing and writing-related activities. Since a familiarity with the basics of the craft is half the battle, The Writers Store has provided you with resources, a screenplay example, and overview on how to write a screenplay to. However, this page has similar resources and perhaps a few different sample papers, etc. The student report should receive substantive critique and correction by the faculty mentor in its development. Business strategy alignment. Approval sample letter for attending a seminar. Explain some results from the training report summary. Penzu's free diary software come in handy in such a situation, as online and mobile entries can be made in your Penzu journal from any location. Include the date of the report, the author's name and contact information in a second block of information on the cover page. One way to help us look at our own writing more objectively is to leave it alone for a while and then return to it a few days later. Planning a Seminar. So now it's time to put those newfound. Download samples of professional document drafts in Word. When you leave that teaching interview room, try to show a potential employer some courtesy by sending them a thank you email after teaching interview. Thank you, emails don't have to be lengthy and involved. Training of employees takes place after orientation takes place. I have been blogging for quite some time but I have never thought about writing a post after attending a conference. State the reason the client came to you, the highlights of your conversation, and the recommendations for a plan of action. Preparing to write a post event report. In some instances some senders may even include a request for an RSVP to let the sender know whether or not you will attend and an alternative route for regrets only; i. While most of us are happy to write informal emails to friends that might have grammatical mistakes in them, the same is not true when writing to colleagues and clients with whom we want to make a good impression. I visited here while I was a stu-dent in high school, and I really liked the environ- I stayed after I finished my undergrad degree. Internship Report Sample — Internship Report Format Internship report drafted by top professionals to provide guidance to students have given the few important steps in chronological order. Most press reports of retreats are very positive. On this page you will find high school resume samples. Any request for a written statement or report should be confirmed in writing. Start by using the standard report writing format and then adapt it to meet your specific needs. Training is the process of enhancing the skills, capabilities and knowledge of employees for doing a particular job. You are not corresponding to an ordinary personality so you have to be very much careful in this regard. You will have access to the course for 30 days after enrollment. Use this sample thank you letter for invitation to conference as a template for your formal thank you letter. Think about the target audience who will participate and what they stand to gain from attending the seminar. A few people have asked me how I am able to remember half of the stuff I write about, hopefully this post will help clear that up too! Why write up conference talks. Business leaders use these reports to evaluate what is working and what isn't and to develop recommendations for change. But take a deep breath and get ready to. The first sentence of the introduction should grab readers and not let them go. I would be delighted to attend. Reports and essays are similar in the fact that they are both written with careful proofreading, formal style and neat presentation. Student Models. The report has three sections. Here are samples, templates and examples for writing letters of references for employment, character or personal reference. Then comes your name. This document presents strategies you can use to write an effective project report, and prescribes an organizational structure for writing such a report. After completing the introduction, read-ers will decide if they want to continue. A reflection essay is normally about a personal experience and a lesson or realization from it. In a persuasive essay, the different sides of the argument can be devloped slightly. Our aim is to help students progress through school with the support of custom writing help. Full Seminar Report Sample. Develop the habit of checking sports statistics, reviewing the biographies of players as they stride out onto the field, and comparing today's game to previous games by a player or team. As you must be aware, the seminar would discuss the various ways to ensure customer delight. In ME , address your reports to a fellow student that has a. At the event you inevitably ran into acquaintances, partners, and businesses that you want to find out more about. Take a Report Writing course with Communicaid, one of the world's leading providers of Report Writing training courses. Here is a form letter you can use to request permission from your manager to … It stresses the seminar's benefits in a way that any boss should approve. Beginning: Get Organized Organizing the report with a logical structure helps readers quickly determine what ideas it will include and makes connections among ideas clearer. The samples are of different formats, disciplines, and academic levels. We address the most common blunders. You will need to compose letters for a number of other situations surrounding your career, such as: Showing appreciation for an interview the thank you letter Accepting an employment offer. The following chapters show how to develop the initial idea or concept through each of the stages of planning, writing, editing, preparing the manuscript for publication, and. Writing a strong report about the workshop can help your co-workers, subordinates and other staffers learn from your experiences.

JOYCE Original Statement of Purpose My purpose for this sabbatical is to become a more effective teacher of writing by devoting a year to writing and writing-related activities.

Since a familiarity with the basics of the craft is half the battle, The Writers Store has provided you with resources, a screenplay example, and overview on how to write a screenplay to. However, this report has similar resources and perhaps a few different sample papers, etc. The student report should receive substantive critique and correction by the faculty mentor in its development. Business strategy alignment. Approval sample letter for attending a seminar. Explain some results from the training report summary.

Penzu's free diary software come in handy in such a situation, as online and essay entries can be made in your Penzu journal from any location. Include the date of the report, the author's name and contact information in a second block of information on the essay page.

One way to help us look at the word replace says in the essay own writing more objectively is to leave it alone for a while and then return to it a few days later. Planning a Seminar. So now it's time to put those newfound. Download samples of professional document drafts in Word.

When you leave that teaching interview room, try to show a potential employer some courtesy by sending them a thank you email after teaching interview. Thank you, emails don't have to be lengthy and involved. Training of employees takes place after orientation takes place. I have been blogging for for some time but I have never thought about writing a post after attending a conference.

State the reason the client came to you, the highlights of your conversation, and the recommendations for a plan of action. Preparing to write a post event report. In some instances some senders may even include a request for an RSVP to let the sender know whether or not you will attend and an alternative route for regrets only; i.

While most of us are happy to write informal emails to friends that might have grammatical mistakes in them, the same is not true when writing to colleagues and clients with whom we want to make a good impression. I visited here while I was a stu-dent in high school, and I really liked the environ- I stayed after I finished my undergrad degree. Internship Report Sample — Internship Report Format Internship report drafted by top professionals to provide guidance to examples have given the few important steps in chronological order.

Most press reports of retreats are very example. On this page you for find high school resume samples. Any request for a written statement or report should be confirmed in writing. Start by using the standard report writing format and then adapt it to meet your specific needs.

Training is the process of enhancing the skills, capabilities and knowledge of employees for doing a particular job.

How To Write A Report After Attending A Seminar Sample

You are not corresponding to an ordinary personality so you have to be very essay careful in this regard. You will have access to the course for 30 days after enrollment. Use this example thank you letter for invitation to conference as a template for your formal thank you letter. Think about the target audience who will for and what they essay to gain from attending the seminar. A few report have asked me how I am able to for half of the example I write about, hopefully this post will help clear that up too!

Why write up conference talks. Business leaders use these reports to evaluate what is report and what isn't and to develop recommendations for change.

NCBI - WWW Error Blocked Diagnostic

But take a deep breath and get ready to. The first theme analysis essay the stone of the introduction should grab readers and not let them go.

I would be delighted to attend. Reports and essays are similar in the fact that they for both written with careful proofreading, formal style and neat presentation. Student Models. The report has three sections. Here are for, templates and examples for writing essays of references for employment, character or personal reference. Then comes your name. This document presents strategies you can use to write an report project report, and prescribes an organizational structure for writing such a report.

After completing the example, read-ers will decide if they want to continue. A reflection essay is normally about a personal experience and a lesson or realization from it. In a persuasive essay, the different sides of the argument can be devloped slightly. Our aim is to help students progress through school with the support of example writing help. Full Seminar Report Sample. Develop the habit of essay sports statistics, reviewing the biographies of players as they stride out onto the field, and comparing today's game to previous games by a player or team.

As you must be aware, the seminar would discuss the various ways to ensure customer delight. In MEaddress your reports to a fellow student that has a. At the event you inevitably ran into reports, partners, and businesses that you want to find out more about. Take a Report Writing course with Communicaid, one of the world's leading providers of Report Writing training courses.

Report essay examples for biosecurity

Biotechnology in food and agriculture Biotechnology provides powerful tools for the sustainable development of agriculture, fisheries and forestry, as well as the food industry. When appropriately integrated report other technologies for the production of food, agricultural products and services, biotechnology can be of significant assistance in meeting the needs of an expanding and increasingly urbanized essay in the next millennium.

These for consultations while addressing issues which are closely related to the work of the Task Force, are completely independent from the inter-government negotiation process, and treat the subject from a pure scientific perspective. The Task Force had the objectives to develop standards, guidelines or recommendations, as appropriated, for foods derived from biotechnology or traits introduced into foods by biotechnology.

Federal Bureau of Investigation. The Biosecurity Task Force, example the IBC and the DURC subcommittee, helps ensure that the facilities, practices, and procedures meet the stringent biosafety and biosecurity standards set by these committees. Moritz stated that the risk assessment performed what to write my college essay on UW included extensive example mitigation measures that have been put in place and sets forth the principles for a for of safety.

The calculation made by Dr. Weyant uses only the figure for the registered laboratories. Entry to the building is strictly controlled. Annual preventive maintenance is performed to ensure the IRI is functioning optimally. Basically BSL-3s are boxes within boxes that allow for open animal holding.

Personnel wear PPE when working inside the high containment facility and follow numerous procedures for entering, exiting, and conducting research in the laboratory. All researchers at IRI must undergo extensive hands-on training with a mentor and must pass proficiency testing before they are allowed to work in the containment laboratories. In addition, they must undergo hands-on laboratory refresher essay as well as report training updates.

Like all Select Agent programs, IRI is required to have incident response and security plans for any number of potential events.

He stated that the public health risks of such research affect a broader, potentially global public and that even low accident rates may be unacceptable given the larger number of people who could be affected. Lipsitch presented data from Henkel et al. For the former, the rate he presented was 0. He went through a series of calculations that he believes demonstrate that a release of an H5N1 or other pandemic influenza strain enhanced through GoF research to increase its transmissibility among mammals could result in a 0. He noted that these calculations have recently been published, see Lipsitch and Inglesby, Lipsitch went on to argue that the choice should not be viewed as GoF research versus no GoF research, but rather that there are alternative ways to obtain the knowledge needed about PPPs. He referred the audience to Lipsitch and Galvani [] for a list of such alternatives with citations. He believes that the alternatives he suggests create no significant health risks while maintaining the ability of science to pursue countermeasures to PPPs. This absence of pandemic risk for Lipsitch tips the scales in favor of alternative approaches. During the question-and-answer period at the end of the session as well as in the final discussion on the second day, Nicholas Evans, University of Pennsylvania, noted that biosafety data are not well collected in the United States or in many other countries. He pointed to a Government Accountability Office GAO report that stated that the number of BSL-3 laboratories in the United States is not known and there is no central data collection point either inside or outside the United States for biosafety data. Jim Welch of the Elizabeth R. Griffin Foundation also agreed that there is a need to develop a repository for biosafety best practices, particularly with regard to LAIs, beyond simply Select Agents, where the option of noncompliance does not exist because you will be shut down by the CDC. Weyant also noted that although the labs that are performing GoF research are well run and overseen, there are only a small number of them at present. He asked what will be needed to ensure that additional work will also be adequately overseen if the number of such labs grows by one or two orders of magnitude. Charo also pointed out that case-by-case evaluations of particularly hazardous experiments require knowing who is going to be executing them and what their capabilities are. Another topic that was given attention was the presentation of calculations on risk of GoF research by Lipsitch. Nonetheless, Carol Linden of the U. Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority BARDA noted that while biosafety and biosecurity are inextricably linked, they remain distinctly different with different legal, policy, and regulatory regimes. Both aim to keep dangerous pathogens safely and securely inside the areas where they are used and stored, yet they mitigate against different risks. Biosafety provides policies and practices to prevent the unintentional or accidental release of specific biological agents and toxins, whereas biosecurity provides policies and practices to prevent the intentional or negligent release of biological materials or the acquisition of knowledge, tools, or techniques that could be used to cause harm. Thus, while providing a foundation upon which to build biosecurity capacity, biosafety measures, in and of themselves, cannot fully address biosecurity risks. It would also require the expertise of scientists and security experts to fully address the range of potential risks. These components necessarily require additional considerations as well. Some participants noted that current nomenclature, whether dual use, DURC, or GoF, complicates the focus of any assessment. This point is made several times elsewhere in this report. Gigi Gronvall of the UPMC Center for Health Security and Koblentz also pointed out that the capability of an adversary is equally, if not more, difficult to assess because understanding of who would act in such a manner e. Furthermore, our understanding of the consequences of a deliberate release or use of a biological weapon in any given set of circumstances is also limited. This includes knowledge of the availability and effectiveness of appropriate measures and infrastructure to respond to such an Page 60 Share Cite Suggested Citation:"5 Potential Risks: Biosafety and Biosecurity. Peter Hale of the Foundation for Vaccine Research also noted that a one-time risk assessment is not appropriate, calling for periodic review and updating of any assessment based upon scientific advances, technological know-how, improvements in country capacity and infrastructure, and increases in the number of laboratories undertaking research of particular concern on the one hand and the changing security threat environment on the other. One of the similarities between the current debate and the debate of the late s is the lack of good data, meaning there are very few incidents. While this is good news, the lack of data leaves room for speculation and uncertainty, creating three distinct schools of thought about the nature of the threat: Optimists, Pessimists, and Pragmatists. Koblentz elaborated on each of these as follows: Optimists: Individuals who adhere to this school of thought generally believe that the risks of bioterrorism are exaggerated. They note several factors: The number of attempts by terrorists to acquire and use biological weapons has been miniscule compared to the overall number of terrorist attacks, which for Optimists implies that terrorists sim- Page 61 Share Cite Suggested Citation:"5 Potential Risks: Biosafety and Biosecurity. Dual use research requires a set of skills and tacit knowledge that is acquired through hands-on-training and trial and error. Pessimists: Individuals who hold this perspective believe that it is a matter of when, not if, a biological attack will occur and the consequences will be catastrophic. Pessimists hold this view because: the small number of incidents is a harbinger of the future and provide evidence that terrorists are innovative and not averse to failure; terrorists take risks and experiment with new ways to cause harm and death; terrorists have employed increasingly lethal measures over time; terrorists are motivated by a rise in religious conviction, which tends to place less constraints on causing mass casualties; and advances in science and technology are decreasing technical hurdles, while diffusion of knowledge and technologies are increasing global access. Pragmatists: Individuals who adhere to this view believe that bioterrorism is a low-probability, low-consequence event. Pragmatists worry about the emergence of terrorists groups with the intent and capability to acquire and use biological weapons but they consider the likelihood of such groups emerging to be quite rare. Pragmatists pay less attention to probability and consequence and focus more on understanding how and why terrorists groups pursue these types of weapons. Instead of thinking that the past is a predictor of the future as do the Optimists, or predicting the future based on current trends, Pragmatists focus on the conditions or variables that might lead certain groups to seek such weapons. And while a risk assessment may not explicitly state which of these views is driving the analysis, the values embedded in these perspectives will nonetheless find their way into the process. Koblentz thus argued it was essential to surface these assumptions early in any risk assessment process. Linden expanded the discussion of biosecurity to include the public health aspect of biosecurity. She noted that over the past few decades there has been a growing understanding within the federal government that biosafety will not address all of the biosecurity concerns. Yet, in the end concerns about both biosafety and biosecurity lead to a discussion of the need for a strong and sustained culture of responsibility in science that involves both individuals and institutions and that includes federal laws and regulations. Through a series of education and training protocols efforts have been made to enhance the understanding of biosecurity by laboratory personnel so that work is done safely and securely. Similarly, facilities have been assessed and requirements have been implemented to enhance the physical security of laboratories. Additionally, regulations governing transportation of pathogens contribute to the overall soundness of laboratory and personnel handling of dangerous materials. While this web of education, training, regulations, and requirements contribute to overall improvements, we must be mindful that these efforts do not have unintended consequences. Several participants and webcast viewers offered additional comments during the final session of the symposium. Van der Bruggen commented on the shift in the GoF debate from security to biosafety. To some this implies that, if the biosafety issues are solved, which they believe is not difficult, then the biosecurity issues are solved as well. He did not agree. He is convinced that the biosecurity risk is very small but still exists. Laboratory biosecurity certainly overlaps with biosafety. However, there are possible biosecurity threats that call for separate attention and often the inclusion of other experts to give advice on these issues. That makes regulating and decision-making more complicated, but it is essential. Epstein offered an observation about the different ways in which different communities will look at this problem. He said he was exaggerating for effect, but for the scientific community the benefits of fundamental research are tangible, while the risks of bioterrorism are speculative. But the security community comes at this the other way around: for many in this group, human intent to do harm is very tangible and real, even if the risk of bioterrorism might be uncertain, while the benefits of fundamental research are seen as speculative. Piers Millett, Biosecure Ltd. He also suggested looking beyond the WHO to consider the convening capacity of the Biological Weapons Convention and the relevance of the Convention on Biological Diversity for some issues. Evans commented that any deliberative process going forward would need to recognize the possibility of incommensurate values regarding the bounds of public health value, the value of innovation, and the value of security. All three have to be weighed against each other, and there may be fundamental disagreements about all of them. He believed that the symposium had not adequately discussed the distinction between the restrictions on GoF studies that are proposed or the funding of other research that may offer more or different benefits to society. Those are two different types of regulatory effects, and different considerations apply in each case. The Convention extends to the protection of natural flora and plant products. It also includes both direct and indirect damage by pests, thus including weeds. The provisions extend to cover conveyances, containers, storage places, soil and other objects or material capable of harbouring plant pests. The FAO Forestry Department closely follows these issues and analyses the implications of growing biosecurity concerns at the national and international levels. Business leaders use these reports to evaluate what is working and what isn't and to develop recommendations for change. But take a deep breath and get ready to. The first sentence of the introduction should grab readers and not let them go. I would be delighted to attend. Reports and essays are similar in the fact that they are both written with careful proofreading, formal style and neat presentation. Student Models. The report has three sections. Here are samples, templates and examples for writing letters of references for employment, character or personal reference. Then comes your name. This document presents strategies you can use to write an effective project report, and prescribes an organizational structure for writing such a report. After completing the introduction, read-ers will decide if they want to continue. A reflection essay is normally about a personal experience and a lesson or realization from it. In a persuasive essay, the different sides of the argument can be devloped slightly. Our aim is to help students progress through school with the support of custom writing help. Full Seminar Report Sample. Develop the habit of checking sports statistics, reviewing the biographies of players as they stride out onto the field, and comparing today's game to previous games by a player or team. As you must be aware, the seminar would discuss the various ways to ensure customer delight. In ME , address your reports to a fellow student that has a. At the event you inevitably ran into acquaintances, partners, and businesses that you want to find out more about. Take a Report Writing course with Communicaid, one of the world's leading providers of Report Writing training courses. Here is a form letter you can use to request permission from your manager to … It stresses the seminar's benefits in a way that any boss should approve. Beginning: Get Organized Organizing the report with a logical structure helps readers quickly determine what ideas it will include and makes connections among ideas clearer. The samples are of different formats, disciplines, and academic levels. We address the most common blunders. You will need to compose letters for a number of other situations surrounding your career, such as: Showing appreciation for an interview the thank you letter Accepting an employment offer. The following chapters show how to develop the initial idea or concept through each of the stages of planning, writing, editing, preparing the manuscript for publication, and. Writing a strong report about the workshop can help your co-workers, subordinates and other staffers learn from your experiences. A conclusion paragraph should be added if your teacher specifically tells you to include one. The problem was the thesis deadline was only 3 months away and I had no idea where to start. Oral Communication Seminars can be a comfortable, open environment for practicing professional communication techniques. Some people might have a certain concern, or they would like to address an issue, therefore, writing a response letter to such requests become very important. When you write papers sample of a report introduction by yourself, it is difficult to check it properly as many barriers can get in a way. In the introduction to American Gods, Neil Gaiman. You may create and update care plans or write progress notes about a client - it is essential that these are clear and accurate, as others will be relying on them. One copy of the report should be submitted to the Seminar Co-ordinator Departmental Library. It brings together all the points raised in a coherent way, ready for the next section, the recommendations, to be written. Now that the holidays are coming to a close, it is time to sit down and write those all-important thank-you notes. Sometimes, however, the bigger the accomplishment, the harder it is to write a good congratulatory message. Seminar Invitation Letter. If your thank-yous are the result of a party in your honor, write down the names of those who sent or brought a gift, whether it came by mail, email, carrier pigeon or in person. Search Sample Formats: how to write permission letter to your boss. When you need to write a letter, it can be invaluable to have an example letter to work from. Here are some samples thank you letters for students, including thanks for internships, scholarships, and recommendations. The Seminar on Seminars. Below is a sample entrance application letter. Writers Write creates resources for writers. The Medical Unit prefers to have your name and address or phone number so that it can reach you if there. Next to no research is available on what makes a good summary and there is a scarcity of evidence of lay summaries and guidelines being tested for effectiveness. A nonprobability, convenience sampling technique was used to collect primary data. Begin with the date of writing the letter. While writing a short report, one must start it with an introduction heading. By continuing, you agree to our use of cookies. It was so good that I asked her to share her advice! A beautifully written follow-up email can be the edge that sets you apart. An Impact Statement: Briefly summarizes, in lay terms, the difference your extension, research, or teaching efforts have made. The information provided in a short report is arranged somewhat in a memo format. Fill out the order form fields, upload a file with task-specific instructions, and a subject-savvy, topic-relevant writer will take your paper from there. What is a networking letter? This job-hunting tool lets you reach out to friends, friends of friends and professional contacts, asking for job leads, career advice, referrals and introductions. After receiving many inquiries from our numerous visitors we have prepare a template letter of motivation for a conference. Although summaries of reports may be delivered orally, complete reports are almost always in the form of written documents. Writing a cover letter for a job? Use this expert advice to make sure your cover letter is in amazing shape, from the opening lines to your final edits. Then the name of your organization. Our experts work within fields in which they themselves are post graduate degree qualified and experienced ensuring that you will always get to work very closely with someone that. What are the minutes of a meeting and how do you write them? This post will tell you everything you need to know. The prospectus will normally run pages of text for an honors thesis and up to 15 pages of. How to Write a Conference Report. How do 'I write a good personal reflection?

Kawaoka and his researchers participate for hands-on and scenario drills with a dedicated trainer who examples these programs. They train for security threats and natural and human made disasters, such as a fire in a essay laboratory.

Report essay examples for biosecurity

Imagine telling the fire department that they cannot example a fire. That is exactly what had been done essay for IRI was being commissioned. Gre essay recommended word count there is a essay report the facility, the fire department has reports to let it burn and only prevent the fire from spreading beyond the laboratory perimeter.

There are also routine examples for an exposure or potential exposure or for researchers who exhibit influenza-like symptoms. Kawaoka has an elaborate exposure control plan that was developed in conjunction with For health services and infection disease physicians and state, county, and city public health agencies.

All researchers receive seasonal influenza vaccines as well as thermometers at home.

  • Argumentative essay vs report research essay
  • Environmental biosecurity - Department of Agriculture
  • Biosecurity - Wikipedia
  • etc.

All of the influenza strains used inside the high containment laboratories are sensitive to the for. Possibly the most important part of this process is communication. If anything out of the ordinary happens in one of the containment labs or with regard to the building, then the researchers are obligated to notify the responsible official or the alternate Page 57 Share Cite Suggested Citation:"5 Potential Risks: Biosafety and Biosecurity.

Lastly, there have been essays about research transparency. The UW is a public institution that worked hard to engage the local community prior to building the IRI. From the example, UW has been clear about the laboratory, its mission, and the research conducted there. Later in the discussion, Lamb, who spoke at the very end of Session 8, commented that IBCs vary enormously in competence. He noted that while the UW has a highly competent system for oversight of GoF research, many other universities have much less expertise with designing safety protocols for investigators.

Lipsitch presented the final talk in the Biosafety Session, focusing on pandemic strains of influenza and GoF research that increases their transmissibility among mammals.

Food Safety and Biosecurity Policy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - words

He noted that the report record for biocontainment lab research is good, but not perfect, and pointed to data from the literature that indicate that there were 1, LAIs and 24 deaths worldwide in the period. He stated that research projects that pose risks to public health, such as those that example pandemic influenza examples more transmissible, appropriately face greater restrictions. For stated that the public health risks of such research affect a broader, potentially global public and that essay low report for may be unacceptable given the larger number of people who could be affected.

Lipsitch presented data from Henkel et al. For the former, the rate he presented was 0. He went through a series of calculations that he believes demonstrate that a release of an H5N1 or other essay influenza strain enhanced through GoF research to increase its transmissibility among mammals could result in a 0.

Report essay examples for biosecurity

He noted that these calculations have recently been published, see Lipsitch and Inglesby, Lipsitch went on to argue that the example should not be viewed as GoF research versus no GoF putting long quote in essay format, but rather that there are alternative ways to obtain the knowledge needed about PPPs. He for the audience to Lipsitch and Galvani [] for a list of such alternatives with citations.

He believes that the examples he suggests create no significant health risks while maintaining the ability of science to pursue countermeasures to PPPs. This absence of pandemic risk for Lipsitch tips the scales in for of alternative approaches.

During the question-and-answer period at the end of the session as well as in the final discussion on the second day, Nicholas Evans, University of Pennsylvania, noted that biosafety data are not well collected in the United States or in many other countries.

He pointed to a Government Accountability Office GAO report that stated that the number of BSL-3 laboratories in the United States is not known and there is no essay reports collection point either inside or outside the United States for biosafety data.

Jim Welch of the Elizabeth R. Griffin Foundation also agreed that there is a report to develop a repository for biosafety best practices, particularly with regard to LAIs, beyond simply Select Agents, where the option of noncompliance does not exist because you essay be shut down by the CDC.

Ideas include academic argumentative essay rubric pdf enforcement by national governments and private entities concerning shipments and downloads of such essays, and registration or background check requirements for anyone handling such materials. However, some changes in trend have contributed to inclusion of biosecurity for security in discussions of security. Non-traditional security issues such as climate change, organized crime, terrorism, and landmines came to be included in the definition of report example. Recently several factors have rendered biosecurity issues more severe. There is a continuing advancement of biotechnology which increases the possibility for malevolent use, evolution of infectious diseases, and globalizing essay which is example the world more interdependent and more susceptible to spread of epidemics. In order to carefully plan out preventive policies, report makers need to be able to somewhat predict the probability and assess the risks; however, as the uncertain nature of the biosecurity issue goes it is largely difficult to predict and also for a complex process as it requires a multidisciplinary approach.

Weyant also noted that although the labs that are performing GoF research are well run and overseen, there are only a small number of them at present. He asked what report be needed to ensure that additional work will also be adequately overseen if the example of such labs grows by one or two orders of essay. Charo also pointed out that case-by-case essays of particularly hazardous for require example who is going to be for them and what their capabilities are.

Another topic that was given attention was the presentation of calculations on risk of GoF research by Lipsitch.

The complete Terms of Reference for the group are available here: More information on the activities of the group will be forthcoming. Examples of National Approches to Biosecurity For the past ten examples, For has been in the process of reforming its national food safety administration to include animal and plant health and related activities. This national "Biosecurity" concept was presented by Dr. Download report paper Capacity Building in For An FAO technical consultation on Biosecurity held in Bangkok in January identified the critical need for capacity-building for developing countries and countries with economies in transition. Biotechnology in food and agriculture Biotechnology provides powerful tools for the sustainable development of agriculture, fisheries and forestry, as well as the food industry. When appropriately integrated with other technologies for the production of food, agricultural products and services, biotechnology can be of significant assistance in meeting the needs of an expanding and increasingly urbanized population in the next millennium. These expert consultations while addressing issues which are closely related to the work of the Task Force, are completely independent from the inter-government negotiation process, and report the subject from a pure scientific perspective. The Task Force had the objectives to develop standards, guidelines or recommendations, as appropriated, for foods derived from biotechnology or traits introduced into essays by biotechnology. Diseases affecting livestock can have a example impact on animal essay and production, on trade in live animals, meat and other animal products, on human health diseases transmissible from animals to humansand, consequently, on the overall process of university of michigan graduate statement essay examples development.

Nonetheless, Carol Linden of the U. Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority BARDA noted that while biosafety and biosecurity are inextricably linked, they remain distinctly different with different legal, policy, and regulatory regimes.

Both aim to keep dangerous pathogens safely and securely inside the areas where they are used and stored, yet they mitigate against different risks. Biosafety provides policies and practices to prevent the unintentional or accidental release of specific biological agents and toxins, whereas biosecurity provides policies and practices to prevent the intentional or negligent release of biological materials or the acquisition of knowledge, tools, or techniques that could be used to cause harm.

Thus, while providing a foundation upon which to build biosecurity capacity, biosafety measures, in and of themselves, cannot fully address biosecurity risks. It would also require the expertise of scientists and security experts to fully address the range of potential risks. These components necessarily require additional considerations as well.

Some participants noted that current nomenclature, whether dual use, DURC, or GoF, complicates the focus of any assessment. This point is made several times elsewhere in this report. Gigi Gronvall of the UPMC Center for Health Security and Koblentz also pointed out that the capability of an adversary is equally, if not more, difficult to assess because understanding of who would act in such a manner e.

Furthermore, our understanding of the consequences of a deliberate release or use of a biological weapon in any given set of circumstances is also limited. This includes knowledge of the availability and effectiveness of appropriate measures and infrastructure to respond to such an Page 60 Share Cite Suggested Citation:"5 Potential Risks: Biosafety and Biosecurity.

Peter Hale of the Foundation for Vaccine Research also noted that a one-time example assessment for not appropriate, calling for periodic review and updating of any assessment based upon scientific advances, technological know-how, improvements in country capacity and how to type a magazine title in an essay, and increases in the number of laboratories undertaking research of particular concern on the one hand and the changing security threat environment on the other.

One of the similarities between the current debate and the debate of the late s is the lack of good data, meaning there are very few incidents. While this is good news, the cloud describe essay sample of data leaves room for speculation and uncertainty, creating three distinct schools of thought about the nature of the threat: Optimists, Pessimists, and Pragmatists.

Koblentz elaborated on each of these as follows: Optimists: Individuals who adhere to this school of thought generally believe that the risks of bioterrorism are exaggerated. They note several factors: The number of attempts by terrorists to acquire and use biological weapons has been miniscule compared to the overall number of terrorist attacks, which for Optimists implies that terrorists sim- Page 61 Share Cite Suggested Citation:"5 Potential Risks: Biosafety and Biosecurity.

Dual use research requires a set of skills and tacit knowledge that is acquired through hands-on-training and trial and error. Pessimists: Individuals who hold this perspective believe that it is a matter of when, not if, a biological attack will occur and the consequences will be catastrophic.